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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 98-114
Virginia R. Massaro

Institutions of higher education continue to emphasize the need to create and develop global citizen graduates who will face challenging global issues in the workforce. A systematic literature review of empirical studies on global citizenship in higher education was conducted to understand the various ways this term is being studied, measured, and operationalized. The process of inclusion and exclusion criteria identified 57 studies. A content analysis revealed global citizenship is being included into higher education through scales of measurement, studying abroad, faculty and student perceptions, coursework, and university programs. The results are discussed in relation to the current literature on global citizenship along with future avenues of research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 261-265
Moh. Ladrang Pramushinto Paramanindhito ◽  
Ezrin Syariman bin Roslan ◽  
Julian Benedict Swannjo ◽  
I Putu Agus Arsana ◽  
Hersati Prasetyo ◽  

Introduction: Pandemic COVID-19 has led people to a new norm of spending most of their time at home. Regular direct physical social interactions become less common and replaced by interacting using social media. Method: This is study is a descriptive survey, describing society’s knowledge on the management of social media usage in COVID-19 Pandemic. 666 samples were gathered who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Google Form was spread amongst webinar participants, processed and distributed into tables, including average score based on age groups. Results: Majority of the participants (69.5%) achieved a score between 5-6 out of 7 questions that were given. Whilst, 0 participants received scores between 0 to 1. Results achieved by all age groups are almost similar, with age 36-40 appearing on top. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding social media usage management does not appear to be affected by the person’s age. This is because social media has been used by people of all ages, hence have almost similar knowledge regarding its usage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shabab Noor Islam ◽  
Tanvir Ahammed ◽  
Aniqua Anjum ◽  
Olayan Albalawi ◽  
Md. Jamal Uddin

Abstract Background Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using Genetic risk scores (GRS) as an instrumental variable (IV) have increasingly been used to control for unmeasured confounding in observational healthcare databases. However, proper reporting of methodological issues is sparse in these studies. We aimed to review published papers related to MR studies and identify reporting problems. Methods We conducted a systematic review using the clinical articles published between 2009 and 2019. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases. We retrieved information from every MR study, including the tests performed to evaluate assumptions and the modelling approach used for estimation. Using our inclusion/exclusion criteria, finally, we identified 97 studies to conduct the review according to the PRISMA statement. Results Only 66 (68%) of the studies empirically verified the first assumption (Relevance assumption), and 40 (41.2%) studies reported the appropriate tests (e.g., R2, F-test) to investigate the association. A total of 35.1% clearly stated and discussed theoretical justifications for the second and third assumptions. 30.9% of the studies used a two-stage least square, and 11.3% used the Wald estimator method for estimating IV. Also, 44.3% of the studies conducted a sensitivity analysis to illuminate the robustness of estimates for violations of the untestable assumptions. Conclusions We found that incompleteness of the justification of the assumptions for the instrumental variable in MR studies was a common problem in our selected studies. This may misdirect the findings of the studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 301-304
Sunil Chaudhry ◽  
Vishwas Sovani

The aim of clinical research is to impart knowledge that will improve human health or improve understanding of human physiology. Although, till the end of 20 century pregnancy was always under exclusion criteria, now pervasive exclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials is currently not justified. Pregnancy brings in an array of anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes that can impact the pharmacokinetics of important medications. Pregnancy is often accompanied by chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, tuberculosis, HIV, depression which can require long term therapy. This indicates a need for studies being conducted exclusively in pregnant women. Current communication narrates ethical and regulatory aspects of inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials.

2022 ◽  

Abstract PurposeThe aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy, quality and reliability of the videos on trabeculectomy on YouTube which is an online video-sharing platform.Scope This paper aims to assess the quality and analyze the content of the videos on Trabeculectomy on YouTube. The material has been obtained by a video search carried out on the Youtube -online video platform- with the keyword “Trabeculectomy”. The material (videos) was examined and selected in accordance with the exclusion criteria (not being in English, duplicate videos, lack of title information of the video, being irrelevant to the subject, videos with only advertising content, videos with a pixel below 240, takes longer than 20 minutes). After the implementation of exclusion criteria, the first ten suitable videos were included in the evaluation.MethodologyRegarding the material, the parameters of the number of views, the number of likes, the number of dislikes, the number of comments, the video duration, the days since the video was uploaded were recorded. Thus, after carving out the secondary data, a number of statistical analyses were performed namely Shapiro-Wilks, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Backward Linear Regression. In this framework, statistical analyzes were made via using the Stata software. Statistical significance value (threshold) was accepted as %10 (p<0.1).ResultsAfter the videos were evaluated according to the upload source, it was found that 2 videos were downloaded by the individuals who is not a doctor, 6 videos from doctors and 2 videos from a commercial source. The number of subscribers of the YouTube channels on which these sources have been uploaded was significantly different from each other (p<0.1). When the videos were evaluated according to the information content they provided, it was found that 5 videos had low quality information content, 4 videos had medium quality information content, 1 video had good quality information content, and the video durations were also significantly different from each other (p<0.1). Moreover, it was statistically determined that the parameter affecting the number of views was the number of likes (p<0.1).ConclusionYouTube videos are essentially insufficient as an educational material and an English source of information for the Trabeculectomy. Health professionals need to pay more attention to online platforms so that patients can access accurate information.Categories:Medical Education, Medical Simulation, Surgery

Joan Puig-Barberà ◽  
Sonia Tamames-Gómez ◽  
Pedro Plans-Rubio ◽  
José María Eiros-Bouza

Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effectiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influenza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; applied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, publication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed using a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017–2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (−2% to 7%) in the 2018–2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Febriati Astuti ◽  
Alwan Wijaya ◽  
Kadek Dwi Partiwi ◽  
Nurul Ilmi ◽  
Ageng Abdi Putra

Flood disaster is one type of natural disaster that very often occurs in Indonesia, Indonesia experienced flood events according to the Indonesian Disaster Information Data (DIBI) for the last 5 years as many as 4031 times and in the province of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) it showed a number of 111 flood events with One of them was Mataram city which experienced 11 incidents and West Lombok flooded 26 times. Disaster prevention is one of the focuses in schools by empowering teenagers to understand knowledge about disaster preparedness in students as one solution that needs to be done because children are one of the vulnerable groups who are at risk of being affected by disasters. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using Audio Visual media on knowledge of flood disaster preparedness at SMPK ST Antonius Mataram.The population in this study were students in grades VII and VIII, totaling 62 people. The sample in this study as many as 58 people with a sampling technique that is purposive sampling with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The research design used in this study was pre-experimental through a one group pre-test-post-test design approach. Data collection techniques using questionnaires. Analysis of this data using statistical test data analysis Wilcoxon signed rankings test.Based on the results of the study, there was an effect of using Audio Visual media on knowledge of flood disaster preparedness at SMPK ST Antonius Mataram.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Joshua Sunjaya ◽  
Sheella Rima Bororing ◽  
Maria Riastuti Iryaningrum

Objective: This study aimed to determine the functional role of the urine leukocyte count on type of UTI. Material & Methods: This is a systematic review study with searches for articles from 2010-2020 through the PubMed, ProQuest, and EBSCO databases. The exclusion criteria in this study are patients using catheters (CAUTI), UTI patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and pediatric or infant patients. There were 1158 studies found and 3 studies synthesized. Results: There are 1130 patients studied. Age range from 18 to 89.1 years. Three studies showed that there was an association between the number of urinary leukocytes and the type of UTI (Tommaso Cai et al., p < 0.0001; and Alexander R. Levine et al., p < 0.001) and one study had no relationship. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the number of urinary leukocytes with the type of UTI. An increase in the number of urinary leukocytes above the normal limit is the sign of body’s immune response to eliminate uropathogens. The innate immune characteristic factors and the body’s immune response have an important role in causing symptoms in UTI patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Jesús Acevedo-Borrega ◽  
Jesús Valverde-Berrocoso ◽  
María del Carmen Garrido-Arroyo

Interest in computational thinking (CT) in the scientific community has increased significantly in the last 4 years, as evidenced by the numerous systematic reviews carried out. However, there is a lack of reviews that update the emerging conceptualization of CT and which also examine the roles of the school curriculum and teachers in the face of CT. A systematic literature review (SLR) consists of a collection of research conducted according to previous criteria with the aim of answering research questions with validity and quality. For this reason, the PRISMA-ScR statement was followed. Articles published in scientific journals, from Scopus and WoS, between January 2018 and August 2021 were included, in the English or Spanish language. The initial search resulted in 492 articles, to which the inclusion-exclusion criteria were applied. The final sample of texts for the present systematic review was n = 145. The texts were analyzed from three perspectives: conceptual, documentary and pedagogical. Thus, a renewal of previous literature reviews was carried out, updating the situation with research from recent years and new data, obtained to contribute to the collective intelligence on methodological strategies (80% of the sample was divided into “plugged” and “unplugged”); educational (more than 50% studied CT evaluation); and resources, including a collection of more than 119 educational resources.

2022 ◽  
pp. 35-43
I. B. Angotoeva ◽  
N. P. Denisenko ◽  
D. A. Sychev ◽  
E. V. Schepkina ◽  
M. M. Magomedova

Introduction. A treatment for LFR for many years, the superiority of PPIs over placebos is still controversial. Of particular clinical importance is the metabolic rate of PPIs in hepatocytes using the cytochrome P450 system with the participation of the isoenzyme CYP2C19 and partially CYP3A4Аim. We set a goal to study the efficacy of omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of LFR symptoms without esophageal syndrome in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), depending on the polymorphism of the CYP2C19 genotype.Мaterials and мethods. After the exclusion criteria, 100 people took part in the study, 94 people completed the study.Results. According to the results, 26.6% of patients in the study group (residents of the Moscow region) with LFR symptoms without esophageal syndrome belong to fast metabolizers of CYP2C19, 4.2% to ultrafast metabolizers, 52.1% to normal metabolizers, 16% to intermediate metabolizers and 1.1% to slow CYP2C19.Conclusions. In patients with a rapid metabolism, within 1 month after discontinuation of omeprazole, it is necessary to increase the amount of omeprazole 20 mg intake up to 2 times a day in the morning and in the evening and reduce the duration of treatment to 6 weeks.

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