Acinetobacter Baumannii
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Donatella Lombardo ◽  
Miriam Cordovana ◽  
Francesca Deidda ◽  
Marco Pane ◽  
Simone Ambretti

Aim: Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogen of serious concern, often exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistance, frequently associated with hospital outbreaks in intensive care units. A prompt detection and tracking of these isolates is crucial. Reference methods for typing (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, whole-genome sequencing) are accurate, but expensive and time-consuming, therefore limited to retrospective analysis. Materials & methods: In this study, the application of the FTIR-based IR Biotyper® (IRBT) to track and monitor in real time the spread of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii outbreak was investigated. The index case and the multidrug-resistant  A. baumannii isolates collected in the following 3 weeks were investigated. Results: IR Biotyper® clustering results were fully confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results. Conclusions: IR Biotyper represent a promising tool for real-time hospital hygiene, enabling a prompt and reliable typing.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 600
Author(s):  
Lu-Lu Guo ◽  
Shao-Lu Wang ◽  
Fang-Chao Zhu ◽  
Feng Xue ◽  
Li-Sheng He

Crustins are widely distributed among different crustacean groups. They are characterized by a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, and most examined Crustins show activity against Gram-positive bacteria. This study reports two Crustins, Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7, from hydrothermal vent shrimp, Alvinocaris longirostris. Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7 belong to Crustin Type IIa, with a similarity of about 51% at amino acid level. Antibacterial assays showed that Al-crus 3 mainly displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria with MIC50 values of 10–25 μM. However, Al-crus 7 not only displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria but also against Gram-negative bacteria Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, in a sensitive manner. Notably, in the effective antibacterial spectrum, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (ESBLs) and Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii were drug-resistant pathogens. Narrowing down the sequence to the WAP domain, Al-crusWAP 3 and Al-crusWAP 7 demonstrated antibacterial activities but were weak. Additionally, the effects on bacteria did not significantly change after they were maintained at room temperature for 48 h. This indicated that Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7 were relatively stable and convenient for transportation. Altogether, this study reported two new Crustins with specific characteristics. In particular, Al-crus 7 inhibited Gram-negative imipenem-resistant A. baumannii.


Author(s):  
Wang Wenjun ◽  
Qin peng ◽  
Shi peiru ◽  
Wu ziman ◽  
Wu pinyun ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Sohail Rao ◽  
Monica Betancourt-Garcia ◽  
Yetunde O. Kare-Opaneye ◽  
Brett E. Swiercezewski ◽  
Jason W. Bennett ◽  
...  

Hospitalized patients are at risk of developing serious multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. This risk is heightened in patients who are on mechanical ventilation, are immunocompromised, and/or have chronic comorbidities. We report the case of a 52-year-old critically ill patient with a multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-A) respiratory infection who was successfully treated with antibiotics and intravenous and nebulized bacteriophage therapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bjoern-Thore Hansen ◽  
Gregor Maschkowitz ◽  
Rainer Podschun ◽  
Helmut Fickenscher

The cationic proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 26 (IL-26) shows antibacterial activity and inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus and hepatitis C virus. This study evaluates the early microbicidal activities of IL-26 against major bacterial species including multi-resistant variants and Candida albicans. Recombinant IL-26 was bacterially expressed and studied for its microbicidal effects in culture. We show that IL-26 has strong 90% bactericidal activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Similarly, IL-26 sensitivity was also detectable in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates. Additionally, a significant, albeit weak fungicidal effect against Candida albicans was observed. Activities against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not detectable. The proinflammatory cytokine and kinocidin IL-26 shows strong bactericidal activities against A. baumannii and, almost selectively, against Gram-positive bacteria.


Author(s):  
Johanna J Kenyon ◽  
Ruth M. Hall

To enhance the utility of the genetically diverse panel of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates reported recently by Galac and co-workers (AAC 64: e00840-20) and to identify the novel KL and OCL, all of the gene clusters that direct the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide and of the outer core of lipooligosaccharide, respectively, were re-examined. The nine KL and one OCL previously recorded as novel were identified and nine further novel KL and two OCL were found.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1266
Author(s):  
Ângelo Luís ◽  
Fernanda Domingues

Increasing resistance of pathogens towards conventional antibiotics presents a major threat to public health because it reduces the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. Mentha pulegium L., also known as pennyroyal, is an aromatic herb that belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Its essential oil has been traditionally used in medicine, aromatherapy, and cosmetics. The purpose of this work was to study the chemical composition of a pennyroyal essential oil and to evaluate their bioactivities, specifically, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-quorum sensing, and anti-inflammatory. A special focus was given to the antibacterial activity of the essential oil against Acinetobacter baumannii. The chemical composition of the essential oil was studied by GC-MS/GC-FID. The DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the β-carotene/linoleic acid system were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties. The antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing activities were evaluated by disk diffusion assays and complemented with optical microscopy observations. The results showed that pulegone was the major compound (88.64%) of the pennyroyal essential oil. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the action against Acinetobacter baumannii stands out, which, together with the capacity of the essential oil to inhibit the quorum sensing mechanisms, may suggest the use of the pennyroyal essential oil to further develop surface disinfectants for hospitals.


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