pseudomonas aeruginosa
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2022 ◽  
pp. 2103262
Author(s):  
Mélissande Louis ◽  
Thomas Clamens ◽  
Ali Tahrioui ◽  
Florie Desriac ◽  
Sophie Rodrigues ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dallas L Mould ◽  
Mirjana Stevanovic ◽  
Alix Ashare ◽  
Daniel Schultz ◽  
Deborah Hogan

Microbes frequently evolve in reproducible ways. Here, we show that differences in specific metabolic regulation explain the frequent presence of lasR loss-of-function mutations in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While LasR contributes to virulence, lasR mutants have been associated with more severe disease. A model based on the intrinsic growth kinetics for a wild type strain and its LasR– derivative, in combination with an experimental evolution based genetic screen and further genetics analyses, indicated that differences in metabolism were sufficient to explain the rise of these common mutant types. The evolution of LasR– lineages in laboratory and clinical isolates depended on activity of the two-component system CbrAB, which modulates substrate prioritization through the catabolite repression control pathway. LasR– lineages frequently arise in cystic fibrosis lung infections and their detection correlates with disease severity. Our analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid metabolomes identified compounds that negatively correlate with lung function, and we show that these compounds support enhanced growth of LasR– cells in a CbrB-controlled manner. We propose that in vivo metabolomes are a major driver of pathogen evolution, which may influence the progression of disease and its treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
George M. Ongwae ◽  
Mahendra D. Chordia ◽  
Jennie L. Cawley ◽  
Brianna E. Dalesandro ◽  
Nathan J. Wittenberg ◽  
...  

AbstractBacteriophages are highly abundant molecular machines that have evolved proteins to target the surface of host bacterial cells. Given the ubiquity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, we reasoned that targeting proteins from bacteriophages could be leveraged to target the surface of Gram-negative pathogens for biotechnological applications. To this end, a short tail fiber (GP12) from the T4 bacteriophage, which infects Escherichia coli (E. coli), was isolated and tested for the ability to adhere to whole bacterial cells. We found that, surprisingly, GP12 effectively bound the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells despite the established preferred host of T4 for E. coli. In efforts to elucidate why this binding pattern was observed, it was determined that the absence of the O-antigen region of LPS on E. coli improved cell surface tagging. This indicated that O-antigens play a significant role in controlling cell adhesion by T4. Probing GP12 and LPS interactions further using deletions of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of LPS revealed the inner core oligosaccharide as a possible main target of GP12. Finally, we demonstrated the potential utility of GP12 for biomedical applications by showing that GP12-modified agarose beads resulted in the depletion of pathogenic bacteria from solution.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Guochao Chen ◽  
Wanqiao Zhang ◽  
Lingbo Kong ◽  
Chengxiang Wang ◽  
Xiaojing Lai ◽  
...  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a Gram-negative bacterium, has a high detection rate in hospital-acquired infections. Recently, the frequent appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) PA strain with high morbidity and mortality rates has aggravated the difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Due to its multiple resistance mechanisms, the commonly used antibiotics have gradually become less effective. Qiguiyin decoction (QGYD) is a clinically experienced prescription of Chinese herbal medicine, and its combined application with antibiotics has been confirmed to be effective in the clinical treatment of MDR PA infection, which could be a promising strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. However, the mechanism of QGYD restoring antibiotics susceptibility to MDR PA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QGYD and levofloxacin (LEV) singly or in combination on MDR PA-induced pneumonia rat models. Further analysis was carried out in the serum differential expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines by cytokine antibody array. Besides, the lung TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by RT-qPCR. Our results showed that based on the treatment of MDR PA-infected rat model with LEV, the combination of QGYD improved the general state and immune organ index. Furthermore, it moderately increased the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the early stage of infection and decreased their release rapidly in the later stage, while regulated the same phase change of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated after QGYD combined with LEV treatment. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly downregulated. These results indicated that the mechanism of QGYD restoring LEV susceptibility to MDR PA was related to its regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides theoretical support for the clinical application of QGYD combined with LEV therapy to MDR PA infection.


Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Author(s):  
Kevin Maclean ◽  
Fernande Olpa J Pankendem Njamo ◽  
Mahloro Hope Serepa-Dlamini ◽  
Kulsum Kondiah ◽  
Ezekiel Green

SCUBA divers are predisposed to otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant (MDR). The present work assessed the antibiotic resistance profiles of P. aeruginosa obtained from SCUBA divers and their environment in Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Bacterial isolates from a total of 137 random water and ear swab samples were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. P. aeruginosa strains were further evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby–Bauer assay. Double disk synergy test (DDST) to confirm metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production and PCR amplification of specific antibiotic resistance genes was performed. All (100%) 22 P. aeruginosa isolates recovered were resistant to 6 of the β-lactams tested including imipenem but exhibited susceptibility to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. MBL production was observed in 77% of isolates while the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes present included blaAmpC (86.9%) followed by blaTEM (82.6%). Sulfonamide resistance was largely encoded by sul1 (63.6%) and sul2 (77.3%) genes with a high abundance of class 1 integrons (77.3%) of which 18.2% carried both Intl1 and Intl2. P. aeruginosa found in Sodwana Bay exhibits multi-drug resistance (MDRce) to several pharmaceutically important drugs with the potential to transfer antibiotic resistance to other bacteria if the judicious use of antibiotics for their treatment is not practiced.


Author(s):  
Wai Leong ◽  
Wee Han Poh ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Carla Lutz ◽  
M. Mozammel Hoque ◽  
...  

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , is ubiquitous in the environment, and in humans is capable of causing acute or chronic infections. In the natural environment, predation by bacterivorous protozoa represents a primary threat to bacteria. Here, we determined the impact of long-term exposure of P. aeruginosa to predation pressure. P. aeruginosa persisted when co-incubated with the bacterivorous Acanthamoeba castellanii for extended periods and produced genetic and phenotypic variants. Sequencing of late-stage amoeba-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates demonstrated single nucleotide polymorphisms within genes that encode known virulence factors and this correlated with a reduction in expression of virulence traits. Virulence towards the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans , was attenuated in late-stage amoeba-adapted P. aeruginosa compared to early-stage amoeba-adapted and non-adapted counterparts. Further, late-stage amoeba-adapted P. aeruginosa showed increased competitive fitness and enhanced survival in amoeba as well as in macrophage and neutrophils. Interestingly, our findings indicate that the selection imposed by amoeba resulted in P. aeruginosa isolates with reduced virulence and enhanced fitness, similar to those recovered from chronic cystic fibrosis infections. Thus, predation by protozoa and long-term colonization of the human host may represent similar environments that select for similar losses of gene function. Importance Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes both acute infections in plants and animals, including humans, and chronic infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. This bacterium is commonly found in soils and water where bacteria are constantly under threat of being consumed by bacterial predators, e.g. protozoa. To escape being killed, bacteria have evolved a suite of mechanisms that protect them from being consumed or digested. Here, we examine the effect of long-term predation on the genotypes and phenotypes expressed by P. aeruginosa . We show that long term co-incubation with protozoa resulted in mutations that resulted in P. aeruginosa becoming less pathogenic. This is particularly interesting as we see similar mutations arise in bacteria associated with chronic infections. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic traits possessed by late-stage amoeba-adapted P. aeruginosa are similar to what is observed for isolates obtained from chronic cystic fibrosis infections. This notable overlap in adaptation to different host types suggests similar selection pressures amongst host cell types as well as similar adaptation strategies.


Author(s):  
Kayla A. Simanek ◽  
Isabelle R. Taylor ◽  
Erica K. Richael ◽  
Erica Lasek-Nesselquist ◽  
Bonnie L. Bassler ◽  
...  

Bacteria use a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing (QS) to orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the group-wide detection of molecules called autoinducers (AI).


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