scholarly journals Promotion of strand invasion by utilizing entropically-favored PNA

2009 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-162
T. Ishizuka ◽  
S. Sforza ◽  
M. Komiyama
Genetics ◽  
2001 ◽  
Vol 158 (2) ◽  
pp. 597-611 ◽  
Francisco Malagón ◽  
Andrés Aguilera

AbstractWe have shown that the spt6-140 and spt4-3 mutations, affecting chromatin structure and transcription, stimulate recombination between inverted repeats by a RAD52-dependent mechanism that is very efficient in the absence of RAD51, RAD54, RAD55, and RAD57. Such a mechanism of recombination is RAD1-RAD59-dependent and yields gene conversions highly associated with the inversion of the repeat. The spt6-140 mutation alters transcription and chromatin in our inverted repeats, as determined by Northern and micrococcal nuclease sensitivity analyses, respectively. Hyper-recombination levels are diminished in the absence of transcription. We believe that the chromatin alteration, together with transcription impairment caused by spt6-140, increases the incidence of spontaneous recombination regardless of whether or not it is mediated by Rad51p-dependent strand exchange. Our results suggest that spt6, as well as spt4, primarily stimulates a mechanism of break-induced replication. We discuss the possibility that the chromatin alteration caused by spt6-140 facilitates a Rad52p-mediated one-ended strand invasion event, possibly inefficient in wild-type chromatin. Our results are consistent with the idea that the major mechanism leading to inversions might not be crossing over but break-induced replication followed by single-strand annealing.

Genetics ◽  
2003 ◽  
Vol 163 (4) ◽  
pp. 1273-1286 ◽  
Miki Shinohara ◽  
Kazuko Sakai ◽  
Akira Shinohara ◽  
Douglas K Bishop

Abstract Two RecA-like recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, function together during double-strand break (DSB)-mediated meiotic recombination to promote homologous strand invasion in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two partially redundant proteins, Rad54 and Tid1/Rdh54, act as recombinase accessory factors. Here, tetrad analysis shows that mutants lacking Tid1 form four-viable-spore tetrads with levels of interhomolog crossover (CO) and noncrossover recombination similar to, or slightly greater than, those in wild type. Importantly, tid1 mutants show a marked defect in crossover interference, a mechanism that distributes crossover events nonrandomly along chromosomes during meiosis. Previous work showed that dmc1Δ mutants are strongly defective in strand invasion and meiotic progression and that these defects can be partially suppressed by increasing the copy number of RAD54. Tetrad analysis is used to show that meiotic recombination in RAD54-suppressed dmc1Δ cells is similar to that in tid1; the frequency of COs and gene conversions is near normal, but crossover interference is defective. These results support the proposal that crossover interference acts at the strand invasion stage of recombination.

James E. Haber ◽  
Gregorz Ira ◽  
Anna Malkova ◽  
Neal Sugawara

Since the pioneering model for homologous recombination proposed by Robin Holliday in 1964, there has been great progress in understanding how recombination occurs at a molecular level. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , one can follow recombination by physically monitoring DNA after the synchronous induction of a double–strand break (DSB) in both wild–type and mutant cells. A particularly well–studied system has been the switching of yeast mating–type ( MAT ) genes, where a DSB can be induced synchronously by expression of the site–specific HO endonuclease. Similar studies can be performed in meiotic cells, where DSBs are created by the Spo11 nuclease. There appear to be at least two competing mechanisms of homologous recombination: a synthesis–dependent strand annealing pathway leading to noncrossovers and a two–end strand invasion mechanism leading to formation and resolution of Holliday junctions (HJs), leading to crossovers. The establishment of a modified replication fork during DSB repair links gene conversion to another important repair process, break–induced replication. Despite recent revelations, almost 40 years after Holliday's model was published, the essential ideas he proposed of strand invasion and heteroduplex DNA formation, the formation and resolution of HJs, and mismatch repair, remain the basis of our thinking.

2013 ◽  
Vol 41 (1) ◽  
pp. 314-320 ◽  
John K. Blackwood ◽  
Neil J. Rzechorzek ◽  
Sian M. Bray ◽  
Joseph D. Maman ◽  
Luca Pellegrini ◽  

During DNA repair by HR (homologous recombination), the ends of a DNA DSB (double-strand break) must be resected to generate single-stranded tails, which are required for strand invasion and exchange with homologous chromosomes. This 5′–3′ end-resection of the DNA duplex is an essential process, conserved across all three domains of life: the bacteria, eukaryota and archaea. In the present review, we examine the numerous and redundant helicase and nuclease systems that function as the enzymatic analogues for this crucial process in the three major phylogenetic divisions.

Biochemistry ◽  
2002 ◽  
Vol 41 (37) ◽  
pp. 11118-11125 ◽  
Kunihiro Kaihatsu ◽  
Dwaine A. Braasch ◽  
Ahmet Cansizoglu ◽  
David R. Corey

2021 ◽  
Terren Chang ◽  
Xi Long ◽  
Shankar Shastry ◽  
Joseph William Parks ◽  
Michael D Stone

Telomeres are essential chromosome end capping structures that safeguard the genome from dangerous DNA processing events. DNA strand invasion occurs during vital transactions at telomeres, including telomere length maintenance by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. During telomeric strand invasion, a single stranded guanine-rich (G-rich) DNA invades at a complimentary duplex telomere repeat sequence forming a displacement loop (D-loop) in which the displaced DNA consists of the same G-rich sequence as the invading single stranded DNA. Single stranded G-rich telomeric DNA readily folds into stable, compact, structures called G-quadruplexes (GQ) in vitro, and is anticipated to form within the context of a D-loop; however, evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. Here we report a magnetic tweezers assay that permits the controlled formation of telomeric D-loops (TDLs) within uninterrupted duplex human telomere DNA molecules of physiologically relevant lengths. Our results are consistent with a model wherein the displaced single stranded DNA of a TDL folds into a GQ. This study provides new insight into telomere structure and establishes a framework for development of novel therapeutics designed to target GQs at telomeres in cancer cells.

2005 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-168 ◽  
Toru Sugiyama ◽  
Yasutada Imamura ◽  
Wataru Hakamata ◽  
Masaaki Kurihara ◽  
Atsushi Kittaka

2018 ◽  
Vol 60 (2) ◽  
pp. 124-133 ◽  
Grzegorz Machnik ◽  
Estera Skudrzyk ◽  
Łukasz Bułdak ◽  
Jarosław Ruczyński ◽  
Agnieszka Kozłowska ◽  

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