double strand breaks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 100603
Zhixian Zhou ◽  
Huan Yin ◽  
Suye Suye ◽  
Fang Zhu ◽  
Haiyi Cai ◽  

2022 ◽  
Kaku Maekawa ◽  
Shintaro Yamada ◽  
Rahul Sharma ◽  
Jayanta Chauduri ◽  
Scott Keeney

Certain DNA sequences, including mirror-symmetric polypyrimidine/polypurine runs, are capable of folding into a triple-helix-containing non-B-form DNA structure called H-DNA. Such H-DNA-forming sequences are frequent in many eukaryotic genomes, including in mammals, and multiple lines of evidence indicate that these motifs are mutagenic and can impinge on DNA replication, transcription, and other aspects of genome function. In this study, we show that the triplex-forming potential of H-DNA motifs in the mouse genome can be evaluated using S1-sequencing (S1-seq), which uses the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific nuclease S1 to generate deep-sequencing libraries that report on the position of ssDNA throughout the genome. When S1-seq was applied to genomic DNA isolated from mouse testis cells and splenic B cells, we observed prominent clusters of S1-seq reads that appeared to be independent of endogenous double-strand breaks, that coincided with H-DNA motifs, and that correlated strongly with the triplex-forming potential of the motifs. Fine-scale patterns of S1-seq reads, including a pronounced strand asymmetry in favor of centrally-positioned reads on the pyrimidine-containing strand, suggested that this S1-seq signal is specific for one of the four possible isomers of H-DNA (H-y5). By leveraging the abundance and complexity of naturally occurring H-DNA motifs across the mouse genome, we further defined how polypyrimidine repeat length and the presence of repeat-interrupting substitutions modify the structure of H-DNA. This study provides a new approach for studying DNA secondary structure genome wide at high spatial resolution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 589 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Cong Hua ◽  
Xuanzhong Wang ◽  
Shipeng Liang ◽  
Xi chen ◽  
Chen Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 4-6
Corinne Grey ◽  
Bernard de Massy

During meiosis, a molecular program induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair by homologous recombination. DSBs can be repaired with or without crossovers. ZMM proteins promote the repair toward crossover. The sites of DSB repair are also sites where the axes of homologous chromosomes are juxtaposed and stabilized, and where a structure called the synaptonemal complex initiates, providing further regulation of both DSB formation and repair. How crossover formation and synapsis initiation are linked has remained unknown. The study by Pyatnitskaya and colleagues (pp. 53–69) in this issue of Genes & Development highlights the central role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZMM protein Zip4 in this process.

2021 ◽  
Alexandra Pyatnitskaya ◽  
Jessica Andreani ◽  
Raphaël Guérois ◽  
Arnaud De Muyt ◽  
Valérie Borde

Meiotic recombination is triggered by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs), a subset of these being repaired as crossovers, promoted by eight evolutionarily conserved proteins, named ZMM. Crossover formation is functionally linked to synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly between homologous chromosomes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Ecm11, a SC central element protein, localizes on both DSB sites and sites that attach chromatin loops to the chromosome axis, which are the starting points of SC formation, in a way that strictly requires the ZMM protein Zip4. Furthermore, Zip4 directly interacts with Ecm11, and point mutants that specifically abolish this interaction lose Ecm11 binding to chromosomes and exhibit defective SC assembly. This can be partially rescued by artificially tethering interaction-defective Ecm11 to Zip4. Mechanistically, this direct connection ensuring SC assembly from CO sites could be a way for the meiotic cell to shut down further DSB formation once enough recombination sites have been selected for crossovers, thereby preventing excess crossovers. Finally, the mammalian ortholog of Zip4, TEX11, also interacts with the SC central element TEX12, suggesting a general mechanism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 348
Hideki Yamamoto ◽  
Akira Hirasawa

Homologous recombination (HR) is a vital process for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. Germline variants in the HR pathway, comprising at least 10 genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, NBS1(NBN), PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, lead to inherited susceptibility to specific types of cancers, including those of the breast, ovaries, prostate, and pancreas. The penetrance of germline pathogenic variants of each gene varies, whereas all their associated protein products are indispensable for maintaining a high-fidelity DNA repair system by HR. The present review summarizes the basic molecular mechanisms and components that collectively play a role in maintaining genomic integrity against DNA double-strand damage and their clinical implications on each type of hereditary tumor.

RNA Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Romy Böttcher ◽  
Ines Schmidts ◽  
Volker Nitschko ◽  
Petar Duric ◽  
Klaus Förstemann

2021 ◽  
Julia Takuno Hespanhol ◽  
Daniel Enrique Sanchez-Limache ◽  
Gianlucca Goncalves Nicastro ◽  
Liam Mead ◽  
Edgar Enrique Llontop ◽  

The T6SS (Type VI secretion System) secretes antibacterial effectors into target competitors. Salmonella spp. encode five phylogenetically distinct T6SSs. Here we characterize the function of the SPI-22 T6SS of S. bongori, showing that it has antibacterial activity. We identify a group of antibacterial T6SS effectors (TseV1-4) containing an N-terminal PAAR-like domain and a C-terminal VRR-Nuc domain encoded next to cognate immunity proteins that contain the DUF3396 domain (TsiV1-4). TseV2 and TseV3 are toxic when expressed in Escherichia coli and bacterial competition assays confirm that TseV2 and TseV3 are secreted by the SPI-22 T6SS. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TseV1-4 are evolutionarily related to enzymes involved in DNA repair. TseV2 and TseV3 maintained the ability to bind DNA, but instead cause specific DNA double-strand breaks and induce the SOS response in target cells. The crystal structure of the TseV3:TsiV3 complex reveals that the immunity protein likely blocks the effector interaction with the DNA substrate. These results expand our knowledge on the function of Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the evolution of toxins used in biological conflicts, and the endogenous mechanism regulating the activity of these toxins.

2021 ◽  
Gwyneth M Welch ◽  
Carles Adsera Boix ◽  
Eloi Schmauch ◽  
Jose Davila-Velderrain ◽  
Matheus B. Victor ◽  

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are linked to aging, neurodegeneration, and senescence. However, the role played by neurons burdened with DSBs in disease-associated neuroinflammation is not well understood. Here, we isolate neurons harboring DSBs from the CK-p25 mouse model of neurodegeneration through fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS), and characterize their transcriptomes using single-nucleus, bulk, and spatial sequencing techniques. We find that neurons harboring DSBs enter a late-stage DNA damage response marked by the activation of senescent and antiviral-like immune pathways. We identify the NFkB transcription factor as a master regulator of immune gene expression in DSB-bearing neurons, and find that the expression of cytokines like Cxcl10 and Ccl2 develop in DSB-bearing neurons before glial cell types. Alzheimers Disease pathology is significantly associated with immune activation in excitatory neurons, and direct purification of DSB-bearing neurons from Alzheimers Disease brain tissue further validates immune gene upregulation. Spatial transcriptomics reveal that regions of brain tissue dense with DSB-bearing neurons also harbor signatures of inflammatory microglia, which is ameliorated by NFkB knock down in neurons. Inhibition of NFkB or depletion of Ccl2 and Cxcl10 in DSB-bearing neurons also reduces microglial activation in organotypic brain slice culture. In conclusion, we find that in the context of age-associated neurodegenerative disease, DSBs activate immune pathways in neurons, which in turn adopt a senescence associated secretory phenotype to elicit microglia activation. These findings highlight a novel role for neurons in the mechanism of age-associated neuroinflammation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhenbo Cheng ◽  
Dehua Cheng ◽  
Jiancheng Li ◽  
Lihuang Guo ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  

Background: Structural chromosome abnormality (SCA) is an important cause of human diseases, including recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair-related genes play critical roles in SCA. The present study aims to investigate the potential contribution of DSBs repair-related gene polymorphisms to SCA.Methods: Fifty-four affected RPL individuals with SCA, 88 affected RPL individuals without SCA, and 84 controls were analyzed. Targeted whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used for screening single nucleotide polymorphisms in six DSBs repair-related genes (EP300, XRCC6, LIG4, XRCC4, PRKDC, and DCLRE1C), and validation was performed by Sanger sequencing. Finally, we detected the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome translocations in no SCA samples with significant polymorphisms by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Results: A total of 35 polymorphisms have been identified and confirmed. Frequencies of EP300 rs20551, XRCC6 rs132788, and LIG4 rs1805388 were significantly different between SCA RPL and no SCA RPL (p = 0.030, 0.031, and 0.040 respectively). Frequencies of those three gene polymorphisms between SCA RPL and controls also were significantly different (p = 0.017, 0.028, and 0.029 respectively). Moreover, the frequency of the G allele at rs20551 locus, the T allele at rs132788 locus and the A allele at rs1805388 locus was significantly higher in SCA RPL than no SCA RPL (OR = 3.227, p = 0.005; OR = 1.978, p = 0.008 and OR = 1.769, p = 0.036 respectively) and controls (OR = 7.130, p = 0.000; OR = 2.157, p = 0.004; OR = 2.397, p = 0.003 respectively). Additionally, the frequency of radiation-induced translocation in no SCA samples with rs20551, rs132788 or rs1805388 was significantly higher compared with the wild type samples (p = 0.015, 0.012, and 0.007 respectively).Conclusion: Our results suggest that rs20551, rs132788, and rs1805388 might be associated with the risk of SCA. Larger scales of genetic variations studies and functional experiments are necessary to further confirm these findings.

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