d loop
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Takashi Okada ◽  
Xin Sun ◽  
Stephen McIlfatrick ◽  
Justin C St. John

ABSTRACT Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation in vertebrates has been hotly debated for over 40 years. Most contrasting results have been reported following bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) analyses. We addressed whether BS-seq experimental and analysis conditions influenced the estimation of the levels of methylation in specific mtDNA sequences. We found false positive non-CpG methylation in the CHH context (fpCHH) using unmethylated Sus scrofa mtDNA BS-seq data. fpCHH methylation was detected on the top/plus strand of mtDNA within low guanine content regions. These top/plus strand sequences of fpCHH regions would become extremely AT-rich sequences after BS-conversion, whilst bottom/minus strand sequences remained almost unchanged. These unique sequences caused BS-seq aligners to falsely assign the origin of each strand in fpCHH regions, resulting in false methylation calls. fpCHH methylation detection was enhanced by short sequence reads, short library inserts, skewed top/bottom read ratios and non-directional read mapping modes. We confirmed no detectable CHH methylation in fpCHH regions by BS-amplicon sequencing. The fpCHH peaks were located in the D-loop, ATP6, ND2, ND4L, ND5 and ND6 regions and identified in our S. scrofa ovary and oocyte data and human BS-seq data sets. We conclude that non-CpG methylation could potentially be overestimated in specific sequence regions by BS-seq analysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 101 (1) ◽  
Rongala Laxmivandana ◽  
Yoya Vashi ◽  
Dipjyoti Kalita ◽  
Santanu Banik ◽  
Nihar Ranjan Sahoo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Walter W. Wolfsberger ◽  
Nikole M. Ayala ◽  
Stephanie O. Castro-Marquez ◽  
Valerie M. Irizarry-Negron ◽  
Antoliy Potapchuk ◽  

AbstractSince the first Spanish settlers brought horses to America centuries ago, several local varieties and breeds have been established in the New World. These were generally a consequence of the admixture of the different breeds arriving from Europe. In some instances, local horses have been selectively bred for specific traits, such as appearance, endurance, strength, and gait. We looked at the genetics of two breeds, the Puerto Rican Non-Purebred (PRNPB) (also known as the “Criollo”) horses and the Puerto Rican Paso Fino (PRPF), from the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico. While it is reasonable to assume that there was a historic connection between the two, the genetic link between them has never been established. In our study, we started by looking at the genetic ancestry and diversity of current Puerto Rican horse populations using a 668 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop (HVR1) in 200 horses from 27 locations on the island. We then genotyped all 200 horses in our sample for the “gait-keeper” DMRT3 mutant allele previously associated with the paso gait especially cherished in this island breed. We also genotyped a subset of 24 samples with the Illumina Neogen Equine Community genome-wide array (65,000 SNPs). This data was further combined with the publicly available PRPF genomes from other studies. Our analysis show an undeniable genetic connection between the two varieties in Puerto Rico, consistent with the hypothesis that PRNPB horses represent the descendants of the original genetic pool, a mix of horses imported from the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere in Europe. Some of the original founders of PRNRB population must have carried the “gait-keeper” DMRT3 allele upon arrival to the island. From this admixture, the desired traits were selected by the local people over the span of centuries. We propose that the frequency of the mutant “gait-keeper” allele originally increased in the local horses due to the selection for the smooth ride and other characters, long before the PRPF breed was established. To support this hypothesis, we demonstrate that PRNPB horses, and not the purebred PRPF, carry a signature of selection in the genomic region containing the DMRT3 locus to this day. The lack of the detectable signature of selection associated with the DMRT3 in the PRPF would be expected if this native breed was originally derived from the genetic pool of PRNPB horses established earlier and most of the founders already had the mutant allele. Consequently, selection specific to PRPF later focused on allels in other genes (including CHRM5, CYP2E1, MYH7, SRSF1, PAM, PRN and others) that have not been previously associated with the prized paso gait phenotype in Puerto Rico or anywhere else.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jiewen Zhang ◽  
Junkui Shang ◽  
Fengyu Wang ◽  
Xuejing Huo ◽  
Ruihua Sun ◽  

Abstract Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a typical neurodegenerative disease associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylation of the D-loop region and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) play a critical role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function. However, the association between D-loop region methylation, mtDNAcn and CADASIL remains unclear. Methods Overall, 162 individuals were recruited, including 66 CADASIL patients and 96 age- and sex-matched controls. After extracting genomic DNA from the peripheral white blood cells, levels of D-loop methylation and mtDNAcn were assessed using MethylTarget sequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. Results We observed increased mtDNAcn and decreased D-loop methylation levels in CADASIL patients compared to the control group, regardless of gender stratification. Besides, we found a negative correlation between D-loop methylation levels and mtDNAcn. Mediation effect analysis shows that the proportion of the association between mtDNAcn and CADASIL that is mediated by D-loop methylation is 11.6% (95% CI 5.6, 22.6). After gender stratification, the proportions of such associations that are mediated by D-loop methylation in males and females were 7.2% (95% CI 2.4, 19.8) and 22.0% (95% CI 7.4, 50.1), respectively. Conclusion Decreased methylation of the D-loop region mediates increased mtDNAcn in CADASIL, which may be caused by a compensatory mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with CADASIL.

2021 ◽  
Paddy S Gibson ◽  
Evan Bexkens ◽  
Sylvia Zuber ◽  
Lauren Cowley ◽  
Jan-Willem Veening

Understanding how antimicrobial resistance spreads is critical for optimal application of new treatments. In the naturally competent human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is mediated by recombination events in genes encoding the target proteins, resulting in reduced drug binding affinity. However, for the front-line antibiotic amoxicillin, the exact mechanism of resistance still needs to be elucidated. Through successive rounds of transformation with genomic DNA from a clinically resistant isolate, we followed amoxicillin resistance development. Using whole genome sequencing, we showed that multiple recombination events occurred at different loci during one round of transformation. We found examples of non-contiguous recombination, and demonstrated for the first time that this can occur through multiple D-loop formation from one donor DNA molecule or by the uptake of multiple DNA fragments. We also show that the final minimum inhibitory concentration differs depending on recipient genome, and the sampled fitness landscape. Finally, through back transformations of mutant alleles and fluorescently labelled penicillin (bocillin-FL) binding assays, we show that pbp1a, pbp2b, pbp2x, and murM are the main resistance determinants for amoxicillin resistance, and that the order of allele uptake matters. We conclude that recombination events are complex, and that this complexity contributes to the highly diverse genotypes of amoxicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12441
Szilvia Keszte ◽  
Arpad Ferincz ◽  
Katalin Tóth-Ihász ◽  
Réka Enikő Balogh ◽  
Ádám Staszny ◽  

Background Invasive gibel carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) has become well-established in the Hungarian waters and now are spreading in the European waters. On major concern now is the potential hybridization between gibel carp and the other invasive species in the Carassius auratus complex (CAC), which may further accelerate the spread of the whole invasive species complex. The identification of gibel carp and their hybrids is difficult because of its morphological similarity to the other species in CAC. Here we carry out a genomic assessment to understand the history of gibel carp invasion and its phylogenetic relationship with the other species in CAC. Three loci of the mitochondrial genome (D-loop, CoI, Cytb) were used to determine the phylogenetic origin of individuals and relarionship among six gibel carp populations and the other species in the CAC. Methodolgy A total of 132 gibel carp samples from six locations in Southern Transdanubia (Hungary) were collected after phenotypic identification to measure the genetic diversity within and among gibel carp populations of Southern Transdanubia (Hungary). The genetic background was examined by the sequences of the mitochondrial genome: D-loop, Cytochrome c oxidase I (CoI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Mitochondrial genetic markers are excellent tools for phylogenetic studies because they are maternally inherited. Successfully identified haplotypes were aligned and with reference sequences in nucleotide databases (i.e., NCBI-BLAST: National Centre for Biotechnology Information and BOLD: Barcode of Life Data System). The phylogenetic relationships among gibel carp populations were then analyzed together with the reference sequences to understand the relationship and the level of hybridization with the species in CAC. Results Among the 132 aligned D-loop sequences 22 haplotypes were identified. Further examination of representative individuals of the 22 haplotypes, six Cytb and four CoI sequences were detected. The largest number of haplotypes of all three loci were found in Lake Balaton, the largest shallow lake in Central Europe. Based on the NCBI-BLAST alignment of the D-loop, haplotypes of Carassius auratus auratus and Carassius a. buergeri in CAC were identified in the C. gibelio samples. Further analysis of haplotypes with the other two mitochondrial markers confirmed the occurrence of intragenus hybridization of C. gibelio in the Hungarian waters. Conclusion By using three mitochondrial markers (D-loop, Cytb, CoI), we genomically characterized a gibel carp-complex in Hungarian waters and assessed the C. gibelio phylogenetic status between them. Hybrid origin of locally invasive Carassius taxon was detected in Hungary. It points out that invasive species are not only present in Hungary but reproduce with each other in the waters, further accelerating their spread.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 13115
Marina Martinez-Garcia ◽  
Charles I. White ◽  
F. Chris. H. Franklin ◽  
Eugenio Sanchez-Moran

DNA entanglements and supercoiling arise frequently during normal DNA metabolism. DNA topoisomerases are highly conserved enzymes that resolve the topological problems that these structures create. Topoisomerase II (TOPII) releases topological stress in DNA by removing DNA supercoils through breaking the two DNA strands, passing a DNA duplex through the break and religating the broken strands. TOPII performs key DNA metabolic roles essential for DNA replication, chromosome condensation, heterochromatin metabolism, telomere disentanglement, centromere decatenation, transmission of crossover (CO) interference, interlock resolution and chromosome segregation in several model organisms. In this study, we reveal the endogenous role of Arabidopsis thaliana TOPII in normal root growth and cell cycle, and mitotic DNA repair via homologous recombination. Additionally, we show that the protein is required for meiotic DSB repair progression, but not for CO formation. We propose that TOPII might promote mitotic HR DNA repair by relieving stress needed for HR strand invasion and D-loop formation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-11
I.C. NWOSU ◽  

Nigerian indigenous chickens possess immunity from endemic diseases and have a better survival rate than commercial hybrid strains under local production conditions. FUNAAB Alpha chicken was developed by improving Nigerian indigenous chickens through crossbreeding and selection. This study compared the mitochondrial d-loop of FUNAAB Alpha and Nigerian indigenous chickens to check likely genetic erosion and loss of diversity in development of FUNAAB Alpha breed. Blood samples were collected from Nigerian indigenous (n=23) and FUNAAB Alpha (n=20) chickens sampled from farms and houses in Ogun state, Nigeria. The Hypervariable 1 (HV1) of the mitochondrial d-loop region was amplified and sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphisms present in HV1 of chickens were identified using Clustal W. Genetic diversity of the region was determined using DnaSp v5 while selective forces acting on the chickens were predicted using HyPhy software implemented inside MEGA 6 software. Phylogenetic relationship among FUNAAB Alpha, Nigerian indigenous and other chicken breeds was determined using MEGA 6 software. Five polymorphisms were identified in FUNAAB Alpha chickens while twelve were identified in Nigerian indigenous chickens. All the polymorphisms identified in FUNAAB Alpha chickens were also observed in Nigerian indigenous chickens while seven polymorphisms were unique to Nigerian indigenous chickens. Higher diversity indices were observed in Nigerian indigenous chickens (number of haplotype: 4; haplotype diversity: 0.743±0.012; nucleotide diversity: 0.014±0.0013 and average number of nucleotide differences: 4.332) compared with FUNAAB Alpha chickens (number of haplotype: 2; haplotype diversity: 0.485±0.001; nucleotide diversity: 0.008±0.0001 and average number of nucleotide differences: 2.424). Positive selective forces were acting on FUNAAB Alpha chickens while negative selective forces were acting on Nigerian indigenous chickens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FUNAAB Alpha chickens clustered with Nigerian indigenous and South American chickens. It can be concluded that there was likely genetic erosion and loss of diversity in development of FUNAAB Alpha breed. Breeding programmes aimed at improvement of genetic diversity and reduction of genetic erosion should be applied in subsequent improvement of FUNAAB Alpha chickens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 948 (1) ◽  
pp. 012017
P Rianti ◽  
A L Hutapea ◽  
D A Rahman ◽  
Y Santosa

Abstract Rusa timorensis (Javan deer) is endemic wildlife in Indonesia and is estimated at less than 10.000 individuals with continuously declining populations due to habitat loss and illegal hunting in the wild. This declining low population indicates a greater risk of extinction. Unfortunately, the genetic information of the wild Javan deer population for conservation management strategies still lacks data due to challenging sampling in the wild. Most recent studies were analysing the breeding populations outside Indonesia. Here, we propose the primer design of the D-loop genetic marker to determine the genetic population of wild Javan deer. We used metadata analysis of genetic sequences and new samples from five wild populations to design the specific primer of the D-loop region of the wild Javan deer in Indonesia. We used software, i.e.., Primer3 to design the primers, BLAST for specificity and Oligo Analyzer™ Tool for efficiency of the primer. The Annealing temperature optimisation started with pre-denaturation at 94 °C followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95°C; 51-56°C annealing for each one degree’s different per PCR treatment; and 72°C extensions. We successfully designed a specific primer (RL-3.1a) to amplify 235 bp of the D-loop region at 52°C annealing’s temperature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (3) ◽  
pp. 032038
P Geraskin ◽  
I Kornienko ◽  
V Grigoriev ◽  
A Kovaleva ◽  
M Mahotkin

Abstract To create a theoretical basis for the development of new technologies for the formation of highly productive sturgeon herds, work has begun on conducting research on DNA - markers associated with economically useful traits. At the first stage of the work, polymorphic regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop were investigated in order to search for promising molecular genetic markers associated with the production properties of sturgeon hybrids. Along with point polymorphisms in mtDNA hybrids, variability in the length of the D-loop was observed, as well as the presence of heteroplasmy in length. The length variability of the D-loop is due to the presence of tandem repeating units in multiples of 80 base pairs (bp). Using Fisher’s exact test, it was shown that the proportion of individuals with four tandem repeating units of 80 bp eachsignificantly higher (p = 0.030) in the group of highly productive hybrids. The obtained data suggest that such a trait as the accelerated maturation of female hybrids (A. ruthenus x H. huso) grown in a closed water supply can be associated with the mitochondrial DNA haplotype, in the D-loop of which there are fourrepeating units.

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