human dna
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2022 ◽  
Nadin Rohland ◽  
Swapan Mallick ◽  
Matthew Mah ◽  
Robert M Maier ◽  
Nick J Patterson ◽  

In-solution enrichment for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been the source of >70% of all genome-scale ancient human DNA data published to date. This approach has made it possible to generate data for one to two orders of magnitude lower cost than random shotgun sequencing, making it economical to study ancient samples with low proportions of human DNA, and increasing the rate of conversion of sampled remains into working data thereby facilitating ethical stewardship of human remains. So far, nearly all ancient DNA data obtained using in-solution enrichment has been generated using a set of bait sequences targeting about 1.24 million SNPs (the 1240k reagent). These sequences were published in 2015, but synthesis of the reagent has been cost-effective for only a few laboratories. In 2021, two companies made available reagents that target the same core set of SNPs along with supplementary content. Here, we test the properties of the three reagents on a common set of 27 ancient DNA libraries across a range of richness of DNA content and percentages of human molecules. All three reagents are highly effective at enriching many hundreds of thousands of SNPs. For all three reagents and a wide range of conditions, one round of enrichment produces data that is as useful as two rounds when tens of millions of sequences are read out as is typical for such experiments. In our testing, the Twist Ancient DNA reagent produces the highest coverages, greatest uniformity on targeted positions, and almost no bias toward enriching one allele more than another relative to shotgun sequencing. Allelic bias in 1240k enrichment has made it challenging to carry out joint analysis of these data with shotgun data, creating a situation where the ancient DNA community has been publishing two important bodes of data that cannot easily be co-analyzed by population genetic methods. To address this challenge, we introduce a subset of hundreds of thousands of SNPs for which 1240k data can be effectively co-analyzed with all other major data types.

Kelly E Allen ◽  
Megan W Lineberry

Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs in the Americas. Transmission predominantly occurs via the feces of infected kissing bugs (Hemiptera: family Reduviidae; subfamily Triatominae) contaminating bite site wounds or mucous membranes. To better understand Chagas disease entomologic risk in Oklahoma, kissing bugs collected from within the state were tested for T. cruzi DNA. Data including county of insect collection, species and instar, and specific locations where specimens were found were collated. Triatomines were also tested by PCR to potentially identify DNA of vertebrate species on which specimens had recently fed. In total, 110 kissing bugs from 22 counties were tested. All triatomines were identified as Triatoma sanguisuga nymphs or adults, with the exception of one possible T. lecticularia adult. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in 22 (20%) triatomines from 12 counties spanning the state. The majority of T. cruzi PCR positive kissing bugs were found inside homes or associated structures (i.e., garages, porches). Vertebrate DNA was identified in 27 (24.5%) triatomines, with human DNA detected in 25 (92.6%) of these specimens, and canine and raccoon DNA detected in one specimen each (3.7%). Two specimens tested positive for both T. cruzi and human DNA and one specimen tested positive for both T. cruzi and raccoon DNA. Results from this study indicate that kissing bugs carrying T. cruzi are widespread in Oklahoma, that positive kissing bugs infest homes and associated structures, and that human-vector, canine-vector, and wildlife-vector contact all occur within the state.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Eugenie Peze-Heidsieck ◽  
Tom Bonnifet ◽  
Rania Znaidi ◽  
Camille Ravel-Godreuil ◽  
Olivia Massiani-Beaudoin ◽  

The etiology of aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), still remains elusive and no curative treatment is available. Age is the major risk factor for PD and AD, but the molecular link between aging and neurodegeneration is not fully understood. Aging is defined by several hallmarks, some of which partially overlap with pathways implicated in NDs. Recent evidence suggests that aging-associated epigenetic alterations can lead to the derepression of the LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Element-1) family of transposable elements (TEs) and that this derepression might have important implications in the pathogenesis of NDs. Almost half of the human DNA is composed of repetitive sequences derived from TEs and TE mobility participated in shaping the mammalian genomes during evolution. Although most TEs are mutated and no longer mobile, more than 100 LINE-1 elements have retained their full coding potential in humans and are thus retrotransposition competent. Uncontrolled activation of TEs has now been reported in various models of neurodegeneration and in diseased human brain tissues. We will discuss in this review the potential contribution of LINE-1 elements in inducing DNA damage and genomic instability, which are emerging pathological features in NDs. TEs might represent an important molecular link between aging and neurodegeneration, and a potential target for urgently needed novel therapeutic disease-modifying interventions.

2021 ◽  
Yilei Huang ◽  
Harald Ringbauer

Human ancient DNA (aDNA) studies have surged in recent years, revolutionizing the study of the human past. Typically, aDNA is preserved poorly, making such data prone to contamination from other human DNA. Therefore, it is important to rule out substantial contamination before proceeding to downstream analysis. As most aDNA samples can only be sequenced to low coverages (<1x average depth), computational methods that can robustly estimate contamination in the low coverage regime are needed. However, the ultra low-coverage regime (0.1x and below) remains a challenging task for existing approaches. We present a new method to estimate contamination in aDNA for male individuals. It utilizes a Li&Stephen's haplotype copying model for haploid X chromosomes, with mismatches modelled as genotyping error or contamination. We assessed an implementation of this new approach, hapCon, on simulated and down-sampled empirical aDNA data. Our results demonstrate that hapCon outperforms a commonly used tool for estimating male X contamination (ANGSD), with substantially lower variance and narrower confidence intervals, especially in the low coverage regime. We found that hapCon provides useful contamination estimates for coverages as low as 0.1x for SNP capture data (1240k) and 0.02x for whole genome sequencing data (WGS), substantially extending the coverage limit of previous male X chromosome based contamination estimation methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13474
Matej Janežič ◽  
Katja Valjavec ◽  
Kaja Bergant Loboda ◽  
Barbara Herlah ◽  
Iza Ogris ◽  

In this study, we utilized human DNA topoisomerase IIα as a model target to outline a dynophore-based approach to catalytic inhibitor design. Based on MD simulations of a known catalytic inhibitor and the native ATP ligand analog, AMP-PNP, we derived a joint dynophore model that supplements the static structure-based-pharmacophore information with a dynamic component. Subsequently, derived pharmacophore models were employed in a virtual screening campaign of a library of natural compounds. Experimental evaluation identified flavonoid compounds with promising topoisomerase IIα catalytic inhibition and binding studies confirmed interaction with the ATPase domain. We constructed a binding model through docking and extensively investigated it with molecular dynamics MD simulations, essential dynamics, and MM-GBSA free energy calculations, thus reconnecting the new results to the initial dynophore-based screening model. We not only demonstrate a new design strategy that incorporates a dynamic component of molecular recognition, but also highlight new derivates in the established flavonoid class of topoisomerase II inhibitors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Abigail J. S. Armstrong ◽  
Veenat Parmar ◽  
Martin J. Blaser

AbstractThe oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.

V. A. Lemesh ◽  
V. N. Kipen ◽  
M. V. Bahdanava ◽  
A. A. Burakova ◽  
A. A. Bulgak ◽  

Based on the bioinformatic and statistical analysis of the GEO-projects to determine the genome-wide profile of human DNA methylation, a list of 27 CpG dinucleotides with a high predictive potential was formed to create models for prediction of the human age from blood samples. The methylation level was determined for 245 samples of individuals from the Republic of Belarus. The correlation coefficients R were calculated, and the mathematical models for determining the age of an individual were constructed. The average accuracy value of the age prediction from blood samples using 12 CpG-dinucleotides was 3.4 years (for men – 3.3, for women – 3.5). The results obtained will be used as a basis for development of calculators for predicting the age of an individual based on the biological traces for forensic experts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Li Gao ◽  
Shijun Zheng ◽  
Yongqiang Wang

The innate immune system constitutes the first line of host defense. Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to escape host immune surveillance, which has been explored extensively for human DNA viruses. There is growing evidence showing the interaction between avian DNA viruses and the host innate immune system. In this review, we will survey the present knowledge of chicken DNA viruses, then describe the functions of DNA sensors in avian innate immunity, and finally discuss recent progresses in chicken DNA virus evasion from host innate immune responses.

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