transcriptional activity
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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 429
Sarah Q. To ◽  
Rhynelle S. Dmello ◽  
Anna K. Richards ◽  
Matthias Ernst ◽  
Ashwini L. Chand

Interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-11, are defined by the shared use of the gp130 receptor for the downstream activation of STAT3 signaling and the activation of genes which contribute to the “hallmarks of cancer”, including proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis. Increased expression of these cytokines, or the ligand-specific receptors IL-6R and IL-11RA, in breast tumors positively correlate to disease progression and poorer patient outcome. In this review, we examine evidence from pre-clinical studies that correlate enhanced IL-6 and IL-11 mediated gp130/STAT3 signaling to the progression of breast cancer. Key processes by which the IL-6 family cytokines contribute to the heterogeneous nature of breast cancer, immune evasion and metastatic potential, are discussed. We examine the latest research into the therapeutic targeting of IL-6 family cytokines that inhibit STAT3 transcriptional activity as a potential breast cancer treatment, including current clinical trials. The importance of the IL-6 family of cytokines in cellular processes that promote the development and progression of breast cancer warrants further understanding of the molecular basis for its actions to help guide the development of future therapeutic targets.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Lide Alaña ◽  
Caroline E. Nunes-Xavier ◽  
Laura Zaldumbide ◽  
Idoia Martin-Guerrero ◽  
Lorena Mosteiro ◽  

Medulloblastoma is the primary malignant tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS) most common in pediatrics. We present here, the histological, molecular, and functional analysis of a cohort of 88 pediatric medulloblastoma tumor samples. The WNT-activated subgroup comprised 10% of our cohort, and all WNT-activated patients had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations and were immunostained for nuclear β-catenin. One novel heterozygous CTNNB1 mutation was found, which resulted in the deletion of β-catenin Ser37 residue (ΔS37). The ΔS37 β-catenin variant ectopically expressed in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells displayed higher protein expression levels than wild-type β-catenin, and functional analysis disclosed gain-of-function properties in terms of elevated TCF/LEF transcriptional activity in cells. Our results suggest that the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of ΔS37 β-catenin contributed to early medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Leif Ludwig ◽  
Caleb A Lareau ◽  
Erik L. Bao ◽  
Nan Liu ◽  
Taiju Utsugisawa ◽  

Master regulators, such as the hematopoietic transcription factor (TF) GATA1, play an essential role in orchestrating lineage commitment and differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms by which such TFs regulate transcription through interactions with specific cis-regulatory elements remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe a form of congenital hemolytic anemia caused by missense mutations in an intrinsically disordered region of GATA1, with a poorly understood role in transcriptional regulation. Through integrative functional approaches, we demonstrate that these mutations perturb GATA1 transcriptional activity by partially impairing nuclear localization and selectively altering precise chromatin occupancy by GATA1. These alterations in chromatin occupancy and concordant chromatin accessibility changes alter faithful gene expression, with failure to both effectively silence and activate select genes necessary for effective terminal red cell production. We demonstrate how disease-causing mutations can reveal regulatory mechanisms that enable the faithful genomic targeting of master TFs during cellular differentiation.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ryan C. Burdick ◽  
Claire Deleage ◽  
Alice Duchon ◽  
Jacob D. Estes ◽  
Wei-Shau Hu ◽  

HIV-1 integrates its genomic DNA into the chromosomes of the infected cell, but how it selects the site of integration and the impact of their location in the 3-dimensional nuclear space is not well understood. Here, we examined the nuclear locations of proviruses 1 and 5 days after infection and found that integration sites are first located near the nuclear envelope but become randomly distributed throughout the nucleus after a few cell divisions, indicating that the locations of the chromosomal sites of integration that harbor transcriptionally active proviruses are dynamic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010166
Thao Thanh Tran ◽  
Carmen D. Mathmann ◽  
Marcela Gatica-Andrades ◽  
Rachel F. Rollo ◽  
Melanie Oelker ◽  

A hallmark of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes pathogenesis is bacterial escape from maturing entry vacuoles, which is required for rapid bacterial replication in the host cell cytoplasm and cell-to-cell spread. The bacterial transcriptional activator PrfA controls expression of key virulence factors that enable exploitation of this intracellular niche. The transcriptional activity of PrfA within infected host cells is controlled by allosteric coactivation. Inhibitory occupation of the coactivator site has been shown to impair PrfA functions, but consequences of PrfA inhibition for L. monocytogenes infection and pathogenesis are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of PrfA with a small molecule inhibitor occupying the coactivator site at 2.0 Å resolution. Using molecular imaging and infection studies in macrophages, we demonstrate that PrfA inhibition prevents the vacuolar escape of L. monocytogenes and enables extensive bacterial replication inside spacious vacuoles. In contrast to previously described spacious Listeria-containing vacuoles, which have been implicated in supporting chronic infection, PrfA inhibition facilitated progressive clearance of intracellular L. monocytogenes from spacious vacuoles through lysosomal degradation. Thus, inhibitory occupation of the PrfA coactivator site facilitates formation of a transient intravacuolar L. monocytogenes replication niche that licenses macrophages to effectively eliminate intracellular bacteria. Our findings encourage further exploration of PrfA as a potential target for antimicrobials and highlight that intra-vacuolar residence of L. monocytogenes in macrophages is not inevitably tied to bacterial persistence.

Yanglan Ou ◽  
Kohei Jobu ◽  
Tomoaki Ishida ◽  
Shumpei Morisawa ◽  
Hiroko Fujita ◽  

AbstractSarcopenic obesity is associated with increased visceral fat and decreased muscle mass, resulting in decreased insulin sensitivity, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of herbal medicines on the transcriptional activity of the Sirtuin 1 (sirt1) promoter in vitro as an indicator of their therapeutic effect. Our data suggested that hot water Saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) extracts increased sirt1 transcriptional activity in vitro, identifying it as a candidate therapeutic for evaluation in the KKAy type 2 diabetic obesity mouse model. These in vivo evaluations revealed that SKK treatment increased the wet weight and muscle fiber content in cross sections of the gastrocnemius muscle (GA) and restored motor function in these animals. In addition, SKK treatment reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expression in the sera and suppressed Atrogin1 and MuRF1 transcription in the GA samples. This treatment also increased sirt1 expression in these tissues. These results suggest that SKK inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy and improves motor function in KKAy mice by suppressing inflammation. In actual clinical practice, SKK is expected to inhibit muscle atrophy and improve motor dysfunction in sarcopenic obesity. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Hiroaki Ohishi ◽  
Seiru Shimada ◽  
Satoshi Uchino ◽  
Jieru Li ◽  
Yuko Sato ◽  

Transcription is a dynamic process that stochastically switches between the ON and OFF states. To detect the dynamic relationship among protein clusters of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and coactivators, gene loci, and transcriptional activity, we inserted an MS2 repeat, a TetO repeat, and inteins with a selection marker just downstream of the transcription start site (TSS). By optimizing the individual elements, we have developed the Spliced TetO REpeAt, MS2 repeat, and INtein sandwiched reporter Gene tag (STREAMING-tag) system. Clusters of RNAPII and BRD4 were observed proximally to the TSS of Nanog when the gene was transcribed in mouse embryonic stem cells. In contrast, clusters of MED19 and MED22 Mediator subunits were constitutively located near the TSS. Thus, the STREAMING-tag system revealed the spatiotemporal relationships between transcriptional activity and protein clusters near the gene. This powerful tool is useful for quantitatively understanding dynamic transcriptional regulation in living cells.

2022 ◽  
Qinglei Xu ◽  
Yanli Guo ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Mingzheng Liu ◽  
Allan P. Schinckel ◽  

Abstract Background: Weaned pigs often have more aggressive behavior after mixing, which has negative effects on animal welfare and growth performance. Identification of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to aggressive behavior of pigs would provide valuable molecular markers of aggressive behavioral trait for genetic improvement program. Rho GTPase Activating Protein 24 (ARHGAP24) gene plays an important role in regulating the process of axon guidance, which may impact aggressive behavior of pigs. Results: By re-sequencing the entire coding region, partially adjacent introns and the 5’ and 3’ flanking regions, 6 and 4 SNPs were identified in the 5’ flanking region and 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of porcine ARHGAP24 gene, respectively. Association analyses revealed that 9 SNPs were significantly associated with aggressive behavioral traits (P = < 1.00 × 10−4 - 4.51 × 10−2), and their haplotypes were significantly associated with aggressive behavior (P = < 1.00 × 10−4 - 2.99 × 10−2). The core promoter region of ARHGAP24 gene was identified between -670 bp and -1113 bp. Furthermore, the luciferase activity of allele A of rs335052970 was significantly less than that of allele G, suggesting the transcriptional activity of ARHGAP24 gene was inhibited by allele A of rs335052970. It was identified that the transcription factor p53 bound to the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) containing allele A of rs335052970. In porcine primary neural cells, p53 bind to the target promoter region of ARHGAP24 gene, reduce its promoter transcriptional activity, and then reduce its messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression through axon guidance pathway.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ARHGAP24 gene had significant genetic effects on aggressive behavioral traits of pigs. Therefore, rs335052970 in ARHGAP24 gene can be used as a molecular marker to select less aggressive pigs and improve animal welfare.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0258876
Carlos M. Roggero ◽  
Victoria Esser ◽  
Lingling Duan ◽  
Allyson M. Rice ◽  
Shihong Ma ◽  

The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer. Development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) requires androgen-independent activation of AR, which involves its large N-terminal domain (NTD) and entails extensive epigenetic changes depending in part on histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) that interact with AR. The AR-NTD is rich in low-complexity sequences, including a polyQ repeat. Longer polyQ sequences were reported to decrease transcriptional activity and to protect against prostate cancer, although they can lead to muscular atrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations are unclear. Using NMR spectroscopy, here we identify weak interactions between the AR-NTD and the KDM4A catalytic domain, and between the AR ligand-binding domain and a central KDM4A region that also contains low-complexity sequences. We also show that the AR-NTD can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro, with longer polyQ sequences phase separating more readily. Moreover, longer polyQ sequences hinder nuclear localization in the absence of hormone and increase the propensity for formation of AR-containing puncta in the nucleus of cells treated with dihydrotestosterone. These results lead us to hypothesize that polyQ-dependent liquid-liquid phase separation may provide a mechanism to decrease the transcriptional activity of AR, potentially opening new opportunities to design effective therapies against CRPC and muscular atrophy.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Marija Rajičić ◽  
Alexey Makunin ◽  
Tanja Adnađević ◽  
Vladimir Trifonov ◽  
Mladen Vujošević ◽  

B chromosomes (Bs) are highly polymorphic additional chromosomes in the genomes of many species. Due to the dispensability of Bs and the lack of noticeable phenotypic effects in their carriers, they were considered genetically inert for a long time. Recent studies on Bs in Apodemus flavicollis revealed their genetic composition, potential origin, and spatial organization in the interphase nucleus. Surprisingly, the genetic content of Bs in this species is preserved in all studied samples, even in geographically distinct populations, indicating its biological importance. Using RT-PCR we studied the transcription activity of three genes (Rraga, Haus6, and Cenpe) previously identified on Bs in A. flavicollis. We analysed mRNA isolated from spleen tissues of 34 animals harboring different numbers of Bs (0–3). The products of transcriptional activity of the analysed sequences differ in individuals with and without Bs. We recorded B-genes and/or genes from the standard genome in the presence of Bs, showing sex-dependent higher levels of transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of Cenpe varied with the age of the animals differently in the group with and without Bs. With aging, the amount of product was only found to significantly decrease in B carriers. The potential biological significance of all these differences is discussed in the paper.

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