Generalized Constraint Neural Network Regression Model Subject to Linear Priors

2011 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 2447-2459 ◽  
Ya-Jun Qu ◽  
Bao-Gang Hu
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Zhonghui Thong ◽  
Jolena Ying Ying Tan ◽  
Eileen Shuzhen Loo ◽  
Yu Wei Phua ◽  
Xavier Liang Shun Chan ◽  

AbstractRegression models are often used to predict age of an individual based on methylation patterns. Artificial neural network (ANN) however was recently shown to be more accurate for age prediction. Additionally, the impact of ethnicity and sex on our previous regression model have not been studied. Furthermore, there is currently no age prediction study investigating the lower limit of input DNA at the bisulfite treatment stage prior to pyrosequencing. Herein, we evaluated both regression and ANN models, and the impact of ethnicity and sex on age prediction for 333 local blood samples using three loci on the pyrosequencing platform. Subsequently, we trained a one locus-based ANN model to reduce the amount of DNA used. We demonstrated that the ANN model has a higher accuracy of age prediction than the regression model. Additionally, we showed that ethnicity did not affect age prediction among local Chinese, Malays and Indians. Although the predicted age of males were marginally overestimated, sex did not impact the accuracy of age prediction. Lastly, we present a one locus, dual CpG model using 25 ng of input DNA that is sufficient for forensic age prediction. In conclusion, the two ANN models validated would be useful for age prediction to provide forensic intelligence leads.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (14) ◽  
pp. 6594
Yu-Chia Hsu

The interdisciplinary nature of sports and the presence of various systemic and non-systemic factors introduce challenges in predicting sports match outcomes using a single disciplinary approach. In contrast to previous studies that use sports performance metrics and statistical models, this study is the first to apply a deep learning approach in financial time series modeling to predict sports match outcomes. The proposed approach has two main components: a convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for implicit pattern recognition and a logistic regression model for match outcome judgment. First, the raw data used in the prediction are derived from the betting market odds and actual scores of each game, which are transformed into sports candlesticks. Second, CNN is used to classify the candlesticks time series on a graphical basis. To this end, the original 1D time series are encoded into 2D matrix images using Gramian angular field and are then fed into the CNN classifier. In this way, the winning probability of each matchup team can be derived based on historically implied behavioral patterns. Third, to further consider the differences between strong and weak teams, the CNN classifier adjusts the probability of winning the match by using the logistic regression model and then makes a final judgment regarding the match outcome. We empirically test this approach using 18,944 National Football League game data spanning 32 years and find that using the individual historical data of each team in the CNN classifier for pattern recognition is better than using the data of all teams. The CNN in conjunction with the logistic regression judgment model outperforms the CNN in conjunction with SVM, Naïve Bayes, Adaboost, J48, and random forest, and its accuracy surpasses that of betting market prediction.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 664
Yun Xue ◽  
Lei Zhu ◽  
Bin Zou ◽  
Yi-min Wen ◽  
Yue-hong Long ◽  

For Case-II water bodies with relatively complex water qualities, it is challenging to establish a chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a concentration) inversion model with strong applicability and high accuracy. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) shows excellent performance in image target recognition and natural language processing. However, there little research exists on the inversion of Chl-a concentration in water using convolutional neural networks. Taking China’s Dongting Lake as an example, 90 water samples and their spectra were collected in this study. Using eight combinations as independent variables and Chl-a concentration as the dependent variable, a CNN model was constructed to invert Chl-a concentration. The results showed that: (1) The CNN model of the original spectrum has a worse inversion effect than the CNN model of the preprocessed spectrum. The determination coefficient (RP2) of the predicted sample is increased from 0.79 to 0.88, and the root mean square error (RMSEP) of the predicted sample is reduced from 0.61 to 0.49, indicating that preprocessing can significantly improve the inversion effect of the model.; (2) among the combined models, the CNN model with Baseline1_SC (strong correlation factor of 500–750 nm baseline) has the best effect, with RP2 reaching 0.90 and RMSEP only 0.45. The average inversion effect of the eight CNN models is better. The average RP2 reaches 0.86 and the RMSEP is only 0.52, indicating the feasibility of applying CNN to Chl-a concentration inversion modeling; (3) the performance of the CNN model (Baseline1_SC (RP2 = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.45)) was far better than the traditional model of the same combination, i.e., the linear regression model (RP2 = 0.61, RMSEP = 0.72) and partial least squares regression model (Baseline1_SC (RP2 = 0.58. RMSEP = 0.95)), indicating the superiority of the convolutional neural network inversion modeling of water body Chl-a concentration.

2010 ◽  
Vol 33 ◽  
pp. 74-78
B. Zhao

In this work, the artificial neural network model and statistical regression model are established and utilized for predicting the fiber diameter of spunbonding nonwovens from the process parameters. The artificial neural network model has good approximation capability and fast convergence rate, which is used in this research. The results show the artificial neural network model can provide quantitative predictions of fiber diameter and yield more accurate and stable predictions than the statistical regression model, which reveals that the artificial neural network model is based on the inherent principles, and it can yield reasonably good prediction results and provide insight into the relationship between process parameters and fiber diameter.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  
Qingbo Zhao ◽  
Yueqiang Jin ◽  
Jiayu Shen ◽  
Chaoyang Li

AbstractIn this paper, six types of air pollutant concentrations are taken as the research object, and the data monitored by the micro air quality detector are calibrated by the national control point measurement data. We use correlation analysis to find out the main factors affecting air quality, and then build a stepwise regression model for six types of pollutants based on 8 months of data. Taking the stepwise regression fitting value and the data monitored by the miniature air quality detector as input variables, combined with the multilayer perceptron neural network, the SRA-MLP model was obtained to correct the pollutant data. We compared the stepwise regression model, the standard multilayer perceptron neural network and the SRA-MLP model by three indicators. Whether it is root mean square error, average absolute error or average relative error, SRA-MLP model is the best model. Using the SRA-MLP model to correct the data can increase the accuracy of the self-built point data by 42.5% to 86.5%. The SRA-MLP model has excellent prediction effects on both the training set and the test set, indicating that it has good generalization ability. This model plays a positive role in scientific arrangement and promotion of miniature air quality detectors. It can be applied not only to air quality monitoring, but also to the monitoring of other environmental indicators.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Abhijat Arun Abhyankar ◽  
Harish Kumar Singla

Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the predictive performance of the hedonic multivariate regression model with the probabilistic neural network (PNN)-based general regression neural network (GRNN) model of housing prices in “Pune-India.” Design/methodology/approach Data on 211 properties across “Pune city-India” is collected. The price per square feet is considered as a dependent variable whereas distances from important landmarks such as railway station, fort, university, airport, hospital, temple, parks, solid waste site and stadium are considered as independent variables along with a dummy for amenities. The data is analyzed using a hedonic type multivariate regression model and GRNN. The GRNN divides the entire data set into two sets, namely, training set and testing set and establishes a functional relationship between the dependent and target variables based on the probability density function of the training data (Alomair and Garrouch, 2016). Findings While comparing the performance of the hedonic multivariate regression model and PNN-based GRNN, the study finds that the output variable (i.e. price) has been accurately predicted by the GRNN model. All the 42 observations of the testing set are correctly classified giving an accuracy rate of 100%. According to Cortez (2015), a value close to 100% indicates that the model can correctly classify the test data set. Further, the root mean square error (RMSE) value for the final testing for the GRNN model is 0.089 compared to 0.146 for the hedonic multivariate regression model. A lesser value of RMSE indicates that the model contains smaller errors and is a better fit. Therefore, it is concluded that GRNN is a better model to predict the housing price functions. The distance from the solid waste site has the highest degree of variable senstivity impact on the housing prices (22.59%) followed by distance from university (17.78%) and fort (17.73%). Research limitations/implications The study being a “case” is restricted to a particular geographic location hence, the findings of the study cannot be generalized. Further, as the objective of the study is restricted to just to compare the predictive performance of two models, it is felt appropriate to restrict the scope of work by focusing only on “location specific hedonic factors,” as determinants of housing prices. Practical implications The study opens up a new dimension for scholars working in the field of housing prices/valuation. Authors do not rule out the use of traditional statistical techniques such as ordinary least square regression but strongly recommend that it is high time scholars use advanced statistical methods to develop the domain. The application of GRNN, artificial intelligence or other techniques such as auto regressive integrated moving average and vector auto regression modeling helps analyze the data in a much more sophisticated manner and help come up with more robust and conclusive evidence. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, it is the first case study that compares the predictive performance of the hedonic multivariate regression model with the PNN-based GRNN model for housing prices in India.

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