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2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Leandro Cardozo dos Santos Brito ◽  
José Wicto Pereira Borges ◽  
Haylla Simone Almeida Pacheco ◽  
Hayla Nunes da Conceição ◽  
Walana Érika Amâncio Sousa ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the knowledge of caregivers and the factors associated with neuropsychomotor development in children. Methods: a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach, was conducted with 220 child-caregiver binomials attended in the public health services of the municipality of Parnaíba, State of Piauí. The study used the “Denver Test II” and the “Inventory of Child Development Knowledge”. Results: the study classified 197 children with natural development and 23 with suspicious development. Caregivers with a higher level of knowledge about child development were associated with children with better development. The study considered caregiver knowledge, gestational age, and exclusive breastfeeding as protective factors for appropriate neuropsychomotor development when used the regression model. Conclusions: actions aimed at indicators that presented positive associations must be implemented to improve child development, such as educational activities to increase the level of knowledge of caregivers, improvement of prenatal monitoring, and encouragement of breastfeeding.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haozhe Cui ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Yuntao Wu ◽  
Liying Cao

Abstract Background Previous studies has shown a significant relationship between baseline triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the long-term effect of TyG index and incident CVD remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the association between cumulative TyG index and the risk of CVD.Method In this study, we recruited individuals participating in Kailuan Study from 2006 to 2013 without stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer in the four consecutive examinations. Cumulative TyG index was calculated by multiplying the average TyG index and the time between the two consecutive examinations. Cumulative TyG index levels were categorized into four quartile groups: Q1 group, ≤50.65 (as reference group), Q2 group, 50.65-53.86, Q3 group, 53.86-57.44, Q4 group, >57.44. The effect of Cumulative TyG index on CVD incidence was estimated by multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models.Result A total of 44,087 individuals participated in the final analysis. After a mean follow-up of 6.52±1.14 years, incident CVD, MI and stroke occurred in 2057, 395 and 1695, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted COX regression model showed the HR (95% CI) of CVD were Q2 1.25(1.08-1.44), Q3 1.22(1.05-1.40) and Q4 1.39(1.21-1.61), compared to Q1 group. Consistent results were obtained in the subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses.Conclusion Cumulative TyG index was associated with increased risk of CVD. Maintaining a healthy level of TyG index within the desirable range and better control of cumulative TyG index is important for prevention of CVD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amanuel Mengistu Merera

Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income nations, acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. According to some studies, Ethiopia has a higher prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection, ranging from 16 to 33.5%. The goal of this study was to determine the risk factors for acute respiratory infection in children under the age of five in rural Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 7911 children under the age of five from rural Ethiopia was carried out from January 18 to June 27, 2016. A two stage cluster sampling technique was used recruit study subjects and SPSS version 20 was used to extract and analyze data. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with a childhood acute respiratory infection. The multivariable logistic regression analysis includes variables with a p-value less than 0.2 during the bivariate logistic regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of effect with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and variables with a p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with an acute respiratory infection. Results The total ARI prevalence rate among 7911 under-five children from rural Ethiopia was 7.8%, according to the findings of the study. The highest prevalence of ARI was found in Oromia (12.8%), followed by Tigray (12.7%), with the lowest frequency found in Benishangul Gumuz (2.4%). A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that child from Poor household (AOR = 2.170, 95% CI: 1.631–2.887), mother’s no education (AOR = 2.050,95% CI: 1.017–4.133), mother’s Primary education (AOR = 2.387, 95% CI:1.176–4.845), child had not received vitamin A (AOR = 1.926, 95% CI:1.578–2.351), child had no diarrhea (AOR = 0.257, 95% CI: 0.210–0.314), mothers not working (AOR = 0.773, 95% CI:0.630–0.948), not stunted (AOR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.552–0.796), and not improved water source (AOR = 1.715, 95% CI: 1.395–2.109). Similarly, among under-five children, the age of the child, the month of data collection, anemia status, and the province were all substantially linked to ARI. Conclusions Childhood ARI morbidity is a serious health challenge in rural Ethiopia, according to this study, with demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional, health, and environmental factors all having a role. As a result, regional governments, healthcare staff, and concerned groups should place a priority on reducing ARI, and attempts to solve the issue should take these variables into account.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandra Doncarli ◽  
Lucia Araujo-Chaveron ◽  
Catherine Crenn-Hebert ◽  
Virginie Demiguel ◽  
Julie Boudet-Berquier ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, consultations and pregnancy monitoring examinations had to be reorganised urgently. In addition, women themselves may have postponed or cancelled their medical monitoring for organisational reasons, for fear of contracting the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) or for other reasons of their own. Delayed care can have deleterious consequences for both the mother and the child. Our objective was therefore to study the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the first lockdown in France on voluntary changes by pregnant women in the medical monitoring of their pregnancy and the associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2020 using a web-questionnaire completed by 500 adult (> 18 years old) pregnant women during the first French lockdown (March–May 2020). A robust variance Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs). Results Almost one women of five (23.4%) reported having voluntarily postponed or foregone at least one consultation or pregnancy check-up during the lockdown. Women who were professionally inactive (aPR = 1.98, CI95%[1.24–3.16]), who had experienced serious disputes or violence during the lockdown (1.47, [1.00–2.16]), who felt they received little or no support (1.71, [1.07–2.71]), and those who changed health professionals during the lockdown (1.57, [1.04–2.36]) were all more likely to have voluntarily changed their pregnancy monitoring. Higher level of worry about the pandemic was associated with a lower probability of voluntarily changing pregnancy monitoring (0.66, [0.46–0.96]). Conclusions Our results can guide prevention and support policies for pregnant women in the current and future pandemics.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rohit Mantena ◽  
Donna Leonardi

Abstract Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and it plagues millions of people worldwide. PD presents with the loss of dopaminergic neurons, associated with increased oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is a prominent antioxidant; in PD, however, GSH levels are significantly diminished. A precursor for GSH is the amino acid glutamine, which is converted to glutamate and then to GSH. The carrier for glutamine is a transport membrane protein, named ASCT2, and this protein regulates glutamine uptake. In various forms of cancer, inhibition of ASCT2 has led to oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis.This research looked to elucidate the role ASCT2 can play in PD progression by using α-synuclein transfected SH-SY5Y neurons as an in vitro model of PD. V-9302 is a competitive inhibitor of ASCT2 and was used to diminish ASCT2 transport and glutamine uptake to examine the in vitro hallmarks of PD progression. Increasing V-9302 concentrations (decreased ASCT2 activity) led to lower cell viability, higher ROS levels, and higher α-synuclein levels. Also, increasing V-9302 concentrations led to a decrease in intracellular glutamine, glutamate, and GSH levels. In addition, a power regression model was generated for each of glutamine, glutamate, and GSH vs α-synuclein to test the biomarker potential of each of these molecules for PD progression. Each of these molecules fit the regression model extraordinarily. The findings suggest that inhibition of ASCT2 lead to the heightened hallmarks of PD progression. Future research could examine the exciting therapeutic potential of upregulating ASCT2 on PD progression.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Ashfikur Rahman ◽  
Henry Ratul Halder ◽  
Satyajit Kundu ◽  
Md. Hasan Al Banna

Abstract Background Chronic non-communicable diseases, owing to their increasing prevalence, are the greatest constraint to disease burden reduction in Bangladesh. As a result, we concentrated on determining the prevalence and risk factors for major chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adult Bangladeshis. Methods Data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2017-18 were analyzed. If a participant had diabetes or hypertension, it was classified as NCD. Whereas comorbidity is defined as a subject having both diabetes and hypertension. Both the unadjusted and adjusted log-binomial regression models considering the survey weights were employed to identify the factors associated with NCDs and comorbidity. Results The overall prevalence (age-adjusted) of NCDs (40.43% (95% CI: 40.29-40.56) diabetes and hypertension was 11.55% (95% CI: 11.46-11.64) and 35.04% (95% CI: 34.91-35.17), respectively, while 6.16% (95% CI: 6.09-6.23) of participants had comorbidity. The adjusted regression model shows that being aged >34 years, and overweight or obese were significant risk factors of all NCDs, where being involved in work and from rich households were found as risk factors of diabetes and comorbidity. Smoker participants and females were more likely to have hypertension compared to their counterparts. Contrary, being underweight was a protective factor of having NCDs, similarly, engage in work was found as protective factors of diabetes and co-morbidity. Conclusion A growing prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and comorbidity was discovered in this study. To reduce the burden of these NCDs, it is necessary to take the necessary steps.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Author(s):  
Mateusz Tomal ◽  
Andrzej Szromnik

Main goal of this study is to explore the entrepreneurial intentions of students in selected European post-communist states. The second purpose of the research is to learn about those determinants which, according to the respondents themselves, are essential for the emergence of entrepreneurial intentions. In short, the results of hierarchical multiple OLS regression indicated that the most important factor influencing the entrepreneurial intentions of the surveyed students was entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Moreover, based on estimates of the final regression model, it was identified that dummy variables concerning the respondents’ country significantly moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the dependent variable. It can be noted that the strength of the impact of the above-mentioned regressor is closely related to the values of Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. The obtained results were fully confirmed using an alternative research method, i.e. the ordered logit model. In the second stage of the study, it was revealed that the desire to be independent is the most frequently cited factor motivating the respondents to start their own business. Moreover, using the multiple marginal independence (MMI) testing method, it was found that student responses differ significantly among the examined countries, except for two cases, i.e. Russia and Latvia, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1654
Author(s):  
Justin C. Matus

Research comparing health care systems of countries, with a particular emphasis on health care spending and health care outcomes, has found unexplained differences which are often attributed to the countries’ cultures, yet these cultural dimensions are never completely identified or measured. This study examines if culture predicts a country’s population health, measured as life expectancy and health care spending. Using the Hofstede country-level measures (six dimensions) of culture as independent variables, two regression models to predict life expectancy and per capita health care using 2016 World Bank data were developed. The original data set included 112 countries which was reduced to a final total of 60 due to missing or incomplete data. The first regression model, predicting life expectancy, indicated an adjusted R square of 0.45. The second regression model, predicting per capita health care spending, indicated an adjusted R square of 0.63. The study suggests culture is a predictor of both life expectancy and health care spending. However, by creating a composite measure for all six culture measures, we have not found a significant association between culture and life expectancy and healthcare expenditure. The study is limited by small sample size, differences in geography, climate and political systems. Future research should examine more closely the relative influence of individualism on life expectancy and assumptions about models of socialized medicine.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jaydip Sen ◽  
Saikat Mondal ◽  
Sidra Mehtab

<div>Predictive model design for accurately predicting future stock prices has always been considered an interesting and challenging research problem. The task becomes complex due to the volatile and stochastic nature of the stock prices in the real world which is affected by numerous controllable and uncontrollable variables. This paper presents an optimized predictive model built on long-and-short-term memory (LSTM) architecture for automatically extracting past stock prices from the web over a specified time interval and predicting their future prices for a specified forecast horizon, and forecasts the future stock prices. The model is deployed for making buy and sell transactions based on its predicted results for 70 important stocks from seven different sectors listed in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. The profitability of each sector is derived based on the total profit yielded by the stocks in that sector over a period from Jan 1, 2010 to Aug 26, 2021. The sectors are compared based on their profitability values. The prediction accuracy of the model is also evaluated for each sector. The results indicate that the model is highly accurate in predicting future stock prices.</div>


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1203
Author(s):  
Muhammad Abid Shahzad ◽  
Syed Abubakr ◽  
Christian Fischer

Mountain farming communities in Pakistan are exhibiting an increased rate of rural-to-urban migration and a rapid growth in the non-farm sector, which has threatened the sustenance of agricultural activity. This study examined the determinants of farm succession using a logit regression model and employed a multinomial logit regression model to study the factors influencing the future occupational choices of the potential farm successors. The study was based on quantitative survey data obtained from 421 farm managers and 155 potential farm successors and qualitative data from 12 key informants from two different districts in Gilgit-Baltistan. The survey results show that around 67% of the farmers had a potential successor. Farm succession was mainly explained by farmer characteristics (e.g., farmer age, gender and education), farm characteristics (e.g., farm size, specialization in horticulture, etc.) and agricultural income. Regarding the occupational choices, part-time farming (66%) was the most commonly reported choice. The results indicate that it was mainly farm successors’ personal characteristics (such as age, education and marital status) and agricultural income that led to the choices “undecided” and “exit”, whilst farm characteristics (e.g., farm size) and the main farm operators’ non-farm activity were significantly associated with the choice “part-time”. Policies aimed at improving the local income situation and investments in skill-building and infrastructure development can assist in farm sustenance.


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