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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Melis Yilmaz ◽  
Senay Balci ◽  
Nazan Kocak Topbas ◽  
Didem Derici Yildirim ◽  
Lulufer Tamer

Abstract Objectives The aim of the study is to analyze the association of different bitter and sweet gene receptor polymorphisms and bitter and sweet food consumption on formation of dental caries in Turkish adult population. Methods This study included 205 adults whose detailed intraoral health examination was completed and decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index values were recorded. A mini questionnaire was applied to assess the consumption of bitter and sweet food. A venous blood sample from each participant was collected in Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes. Further, DNA samples were isolated from the blood samples by utilizing a DNA isolation kit, which were stored at +4 °C prior to the analysis. Taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38; rs10246939, rs713598, rs1726866), Taste receptor type 1 member 2 (TAS1R2; rs35874116, rs9701796), and Taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3; rs307355) gene polymorphisms were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results There was no statistically significant association between the TAS2R38, TAS1R2, and TAS1R3 gene polymorphism and the DMFT index (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the consumption of bitter and sweet food and the DMFT index (p>0.05). Conclusions TAS2R38 (rs10246939, rs713598, rs1726866), TAS1R2 (rs35874116, rs9701796), and TAS1R3 (rs307355) gene polymorphism may not be associated with the formation of dental caries in the Turkish adult population.

2021 ◽  
Elif MENEKSE ◽  
Muhammed Emin DUZ ◽  

Objective D-dimer, ferritin, and fibrinogen parameters in COVID-19 patients are essential, particularly in inpatients and intensive care unit patients. It is vital to know the changes that occur due to the biological structure of the person than the disease effect in these tests to manage the fatal disease better. Method Blood samples were taken on the first, third, and fifth days from 30 healthy volunteers, 15 of whom were smokers, 15 were non-smokers, and D-dimer, ferritin, and fibrinogen tests were studied with repeated measurements. After the data was processed for normality and homogeneity and removing extreme values, CVA, CVI, CVG, CVT, RCV, II, I%, B%, TE% values were calculated via a complete nested ANOVA design, according to Callum G, Fraser, and EFLM. Results CVI and CVG values of D-dimer were calculated as 49.07% and 40.69% for all individuals, 49.26% and 27.71% for smokers, 48.80% and 51.67% for non-smokers, respectively. In terms of fibrinogen, the same analyzes for all individuals were calculated as 11.18% and 10.62%, 3.25% and 20.17% for smokers, 9.11% and 6.79% for non-smokers, respectively. The same ferritin analyses were calculated as 23.74% and 63.31% for all individuals, 34.98% and 35.24% for smokers, 30.53% and 74.87% for non-smokers, respectively. Conclusion Changes in D-dimer measurements every other day in healthy individuals can be observed depending on the biological characteristics of the individuals, and the population-based reference interval may be insufficient for clinical evaluation. Therefore, each individual should be evaluated within themselves. When assessing the results of ferritin and fibrinogen in non-smoking individuals, it should be taken into account that significant differences may occur between individuals. Besides, it should be kept in mind that there may be considerable changes due to biological variation in the repeated measurements of ferritin every other day.

Ganavi P Yamasandhi ◽  
Mala Dharmalingam

Abstract Fetuin–A is a glycoprotein which helps in the regulation of metabolism. It is an early marker of insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Fetuin–A as a predictive biomarker in cases of newly detected type 2 diabetes (NDD). The study involved 60 NDD and 60 Normal Healthy Controls (NHC). All the demographics and anthropological characteristics were noted. Fasting blood samples were drawn and various biochemical parameters were analyzed. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) score was calculated. Chisquare, student T-test and Mann Whitney U tests were employed to associate and compare the mean and median between the NDD and NHC groups. Pearson's and Spearman’s correlation analysis were employed to examine the relationship of Fetuin–A levels with parametric and nonparametric variables. The independent predictors of Fetuin–A was determined by employing multiple forward linear regression. Fetuin–A was significantly high in NDD compared to NHC (1323 vs. 306.98 mcg/mL; p<0.001). Majority of NDD patients demonstrated IR based on the HOMA-IR (88.33% vs. 66.67%) and QUICKI score (96.67% vs. 85%). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that systolic blood pressure, age and QUICKI score were independently associated with Fetuin–A (p value <0.01). Fetuin–A may be used as a biomarker to detect NDD. Therefore, early detection of Fetuin–A levels in NDD gives an opportunity for suitable patient management.

2021 ◽  
Elsa Lorthe ◽  
Mathilde Bellon ◽  
Gregoire Michielin ◽  
Julie Berthelot ◽  
Maria-Eugenia Zaballa ◽  

Background Twenty-one months into the pandemic, the extent to which young children get infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 in school settings remains controversial, in particular with variants of concern. We report a prospective epidemiological, virological and serological investigation of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a primary school in Geneva, Switzerland, in April-May 2021. Methods This outbreak investigation is part of a longitudinal, prospective, primary school-based surveillance study (SEROCoV-Schools). It involved repeated testing of pupils and teachers and household members of participants who tested positive. Rapid antigen tests and/or real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed at Day 0-2 and Day 5-7; serologies on dried capillary blood samples were performed at Day 0-2 and Day 30. Contact tracing interviews and SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing were carried out for positive cases. Results This SARS-CoV-2 outbreak caused by the Alpha variant involved 20 children aged 4 to 6 years from 4 classes, 2 teachers and 3 household members. Infection attack rates were between 11.8 and 62.0% among pupils from the 4 classes, 22.2% among teachers and 0% among non-teaching staff. Secondary attack rate among household members was 10.7%. Symptoms were reported by 63% of infected children, 100% of teachers and 66.7% of household members. All analysed sequences but one showed 100% identity. Serological tests detected 8 seroconversions unidentified by SARS-CoV-2 virological tests. Conclusions This study confirmed child-to-child and child-to-adult transmission of the infection. SARS-CoV-2 can spread rapidly between children and adults in school settings, and is thereby introduced into households. Effective measures to limit transmission in schools have the potential to reduce the overall community circulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Iain R. Konigsberg ◽  
Bret Barnes ◽  
Monica Campbell ◽  
Elizabeth Davidson ◽  
Yingfei Zhen ◽  

Abstract Background Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, most clinical testing has focused on RT-PCR1. Host epigenome manipulation post coronavirus infection2–4 suggests that DNA methylation signatures may differentiate patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from uninfected individuals, and help predict COVID-19 disease severity, even at initial presentation. Methods We customized Illumina’s Infinium MethylationEPIC array to enhance immune response detection and profiled peripheral blood samples from 164 COVID-19 patients with longitudinal measurements of disease severity and 296 patient controls. Results Epigenome-wide association analysis revealed 13,033 genome-wide significant methylation sites for case-vs-control status. Genes and pathways involved in interferon signaling and viral response were significantly enriched among differentially methylated sites. We observe highly significant associations at genes previously reported in genetic association studies (e.g.IRF7, OAS1). Using machine learning techniques, models built using sparse regression yielded highly predictive findings: cross-validated best fit AUC was 93.6% for case-vs-control status, and 79.1%, 80.8%, and 84.4% for hospitalization, ICU admission, and progression to death, respectively. Conclusions In summary, the strong COVID-19-specific epigenetic signature in peripheral blood driven by key immune-related pathways related to infection status, disease severity, and clinical deterioration provides insights useful for diagnosis and prognosis of patients with viral infections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yan-ping Tang ◽  
Yi-xin Yin ◽  
Ming-zhi Xie ◽  
Xin-qiang Liang ◽  
Ji-lin Li ◽  

Background: The role of hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the association of HMMR with the development and prognosis of CRC using sequence datasets, clinical tissues, blood samples, and cell lines.Methods: CRC datasets were downloaded from TCGA and GEO databases. Forty CRC tissue samples, 120 CRC blood samples, and 100 healthy controls were collected. Four CRC cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo, and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line (NCM460) were cultured. RT-qPCR was used to determine the expression of HMMR in the tissues and cell lines. ELISA was used to measure HMMR levels in the blood samples.Results: The expression of HMMR was significantly increased in CRC tissues than in corresponding adjacent tissues based on TCGA and GEO datasets, and clinical CRC tissues. No associations were found between the expression of HMMR and the TNM stage or other clinical parameters. The expression of HMMR varied in different CRC cell lines. The blood levels of HMMR tended to be higher in patients with CRC than in healthy controls. TCGA and GEO datasets showed inconsistent results regarding the association of HMMR expression with the survival of patients with CRC.Conclusion: The expression of HMMR is increased in CRC tissues but not in the blood. The expression of HMMR is independent of CRC development and has no prognostic significance in patients with CRC.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1979
Chia-Te Kung ◽  
Chih-Min Su ◽  
Sheng-Yuan Hsiao ◽  
Fu-Cheng Chen ◽  
Yun-Ru Lai ◽  

Increased soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) levels have been reported in patients with sepsis. We tested the hypotheses that serum sTREM-1 levels increase in the early phase of sepsis and decrease after sepsis under appropriate treatment and that sTREM-1 levels can predict therapeutic outcomes. One hundred and fifty-five patients prospectively underwent blood samples including biochemical data, sTREM-1, and biomarkers on endothelial dysfunction as well as clinical severity index examinations. Blood samples from Days 1, 4, and 7 after admission were checked. For comparison, 50 healthy subjects were selected as healthy control. Those patients who had sepsis had significantly higher sTREM-1 levels than those of healthy control. sTREM-1 levels positively correlated with biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) and lactate level as well as clinical severity index (maximum 24 h APACHE score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score) upon admission. sTREM-1 concentrations were significantly higher from Day 1 to Day 7 in the non-survivors than in the survivors. A stepwise logistic regression analysis showed only sTREM-1 level and maximum 24 h SOFA score upon admission were significantly associated with fatality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of sTREM-1 in sepsis-related fatality gave a value of 0.726, with a cutoff value of 384.6 pg/mL (sensitivity = 80.8% and specificity = 61.5%). sTREM-1 level may be valuable in auxiliary diagnosis, and it can serve as a useful biomarker as a screening service and follow-up therapeutic outcomes in sepsis.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 961
Panagiota Klentrou ◽  
Katherine McKee ◽  
Brandon J. McKinlay ◽  
Nigel Kurgan ◽  
Brian D. Roy ◽  

Thirteen female adolescent soccer players (14.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in a cross-over, double-blind trial examining the effects of Greek yogurt (GY) consumption on bone biomarkers during 5 days of intense soccer training. The study took place over two intervention weeks, which consisted of a pre-training assessment day, 5 training days, and a post-training assessment day. Participants completed the GY condition and a carbohydrate isocaloric placebo control pudding condition (CHO) in random order, 4 weeks apart. Morning, fasted, resting blood samples were collected pre- and post-training in each condition. Total osteocalcin (tOC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (unOC), C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) were measured in serum. The results showed no effects for time (pre- to post-training) or condition, and no interaction for tOC, CTX, OPG, RANKL, and the OPG/RANKL ratio. A time-by-condition interaction (p = 0.011) was observed in unOC, reflecting a post-training decrease in the GY, but not the CHO condition (−26% vs. −3%, respectively). However, relative unOC (% of tOC) decreased post-training (−16%), with no differences between conditions. These findings suggest that short-term high-impact intense training had no direct catabolic impact on bone metabolism, with GY adding no benefit beyond that of the isocaloric CHO control pudding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 82
Aliyu Abubakar ◽  
Mohammed Ajuji ◽  
Ibrahim Usman Yahya

Malaria is one of the most infectious diseases in the world, particularly in developing continents such as Africa and Asia. Due to the high number of cases and lack of sufficient diagnostic facilities and experienced medical personnel, there is a need for advanced diagnostic procedures to complement existing methods. For this reason, this study proposes the use of machine-learning models to detect the malaria parasite in blood-smear images. Six different features—VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, ResNet101, DenseNet121, and DenseNet201 models—were extracted. Then Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and K-Nearest Neighbour classifiers were trained using these six features. Extensive performance analysis is presented in terms of precision, recall, f-1score, accuracy, and computational time. The results showed that automating the process can effectively detect the malaria parasite in blood samples with an accuracy of over 94% with less complexity than the previous approaches found in the literature.

2021 ◽  
Karthik Ramasamy ◽  
Ross Sadler ◽  
Sally Jeans ◽  
Paul Weeden ◽  
Sherin Varghese ◽  

Background: Myeloma patients frequently respond poorly to bacterial and viral vaccination. Small number of studies have reported poor humoral immune responses in myeloma patients to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: Using a prospective study of a myeloma and smouldering myeloma patients within the UK rudystudy cohort, we assessed humoral and cellular immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination post second COVID-19 vaccine administration. Findings: We report data from 214 adults with myeloma (n=204) or smouldering myeloma (n=10) who provided blood samples at least 3 weeks after second vaccine dose.Positive Anti-S antibody levels (> 50 IU/ml) were detected in 188/203 (92.5%), positive IGRA responses were seen in 102/167 (61.7%). Only 9/167 patients were identified to have both a negative IGRA and negative Anti-S protein antibody response. 100/167 (59.8%) patients produced positive results for both S protein serology and IGRA. After adjusting for disease severity and myeloma therapy, poor humoral immune response was predicted by male gender. Predictors of poor IGRA included antiCD38/ BCMA therapy and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination.. Interpretation: A significant majority of myeloma patients elicit Anti-S protein antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccine with approximately half of myeloma patients show both positive COVID serology, and cellular responses via IGRA. Predictors of a poor immune response included male gender, myeloma therapy regimen and vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination. Further work is needed to understand the clinical significance of patients discordant for humoral and cellular responses.

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