Model Transformation Development Using Automated Requirements Analysis, Metamodel Matching, and Transformation by Example

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-71
K. Lano ◽  
S. Kolahdouz-Rahimi ◽  
S. Fang

In this article, we address how the production of model transformations (MT) can be accelerated by automation of transformation synthesis from requirements, examples, and metamodels. We introduce a synthesis process based on metamodel matching, correspondence patterns between metamodels, and completeness and consistency analysis of matches. We describe how the limitations of metamodel matching can be addressed by combining matching with automated requirements analysis and model transformation by example (MTBE) techniques. We show that in practical examples a large percentage of required transformation functionality can usually be constructed automatically, thus potentially reducing development effort. We also evaluate the efficiency of synthesised transformations. Our novel contributions are: The concept of correspondence patterns between metamodels of a transformation. Requirements analysis of transformations using natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML). Symbolic MTBE using “predictive specification” to infer transformations from examples. Transformation generation in multiple MT languages and in Java, from an abstract intermediate language.

Rohan Pandey ◽  
Vaibhav Gautam ◽  
Ridam Pal ◽  
Harsh Bandhey ◽  
Lovedeep Singh Dhingra ◽  

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the potential of digital misinformation in shaping the health of nations. The deluge of unverified information that spreads faster than the epidemic itself is an unprecedented phenomenon that has put millions of lives in danger. Mitigating this ‘Infodemic’ requires strong health messaging systems that are engaging, vernacular, scalable, effective and continuously learn the new patterns of misinformation. OBJECTIVE We created WashKaro, a multi-pronged intervention for mitigating misinformation through conversational AI, machine translation and natural language processing. WashKaro provides the right information matched against WHO guidelines through AI, and delivers it in the right format in local languages. METHODS We theorize (i) an NLP based AI engine that could continuously incorporate user feedback to improve relevance of information, (ii) bite sized audio in the local language to improve penetrance in a country with skewed gender literacy ratios, and (iii) conversational but interactive AI engagement with users towards an increased health awareness in the community. RESULTS A total of 5026 people who downloaded the app during the study window, among those 1545 were active users. Our study shows that 3.4 times more females engaged with the App in Hindi as compared to males, the relevance of AI-filtered news content doubled within 45 days of continuous machine learning, and the prudence of integrated AI chatbot “Satya” increased thus proving the usefulness of an mHealth platform to mitigate health misinformation. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that a multi-pronged machine learning application delivering vernacular bite-sized audios and conversational AI is an effective approach to mitigate health misinformation. CLINICALTRIAL Not Applicable

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. e100262
Mustafa Khanbhai ◽  
Patrick Anyadi ◽  
Joshua Symons ◽  
Kelsey Flott ◽  
Ara Darzi ◽  

ObjectivesUnstructured free-text patient feedback contains rich information, and analysing these data manually would require a lot of personnel resources which are not available in most healthcare organisations.To undertake a systematic review of the literature on the use of natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) to process and analyse free-text patient experience data.MethodsDatabases were systematically searched to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2019 examining NLP to analyse free-text patient feedback. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies, a narrative synthesis was deemed most appropriate. Data related to the study purpose, corpus, methodology, performance metrics and indicators of quality were recorded.ResultsNineteen articles were included. The majority (80%) of studies applied language analysis techniques on patient feedback from social media sites (unsolicited) followed by structured surveys (solicited). Supervised learning was frequently used (n=9), followed by unsupervised (n=6) and semisupervised (n=3). Comments extracted from social media were analysed using an unsupervised approach, and free-text comments held within structured surveys were analysed using a supervised approach. Reported performance metrics included the precision, recall and F-measure, with support vector machine and Naïve Bayes being the best performing ML classifiers.ConclusionNLP and ML have emerged as an important tool for processing unstructured free text. Both supervised and unsupervised approaches have their role depending on the data source. With the advancement of data analysis tools, these techniques may be useful to healthcare organisations to generate insight from the volumes of unstructured free-text data.

2019 ◽  
pp. 1-8 ◽  
Tomasz Oliwa ◽  
Steven B. Maron ◽  
Leah M. Chase ◽  
Samantha Lomnicki ◽  
Daniel V.T. Catenacci ◽  

PURPOSE Robust institutional tumor banks depend on continuous sample curation or else subsequent biopsy or resection specimens are overlooked after initial enrollment. Curation automation is hindered by semistructured free-text clinical pathology notes, which complicate data abstraction. Our motivation is to develop a natural language processing method that dynamically identifies existing pathology specimen elements necessary for locating specimens for future use in a manner that can be re-implemented by other institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Pathology reports from patients with gastroesophageal cancer enrolled in The University of Chicago GI oncology tumor bank were used to train and validate a novel composite natural language processing-based pipeline with a supervised machine learning classification step to separate notes into internal (primary review) and external (consultation) reports; a named-entity recognition step to obtain label (accession number), location, date, and sublabels (block identifiers); and a results proofreading step. RESULTS We analyzed 188 pathology reports, including 82 internal reports and 106 external consult reports, and successfully extracted named entities grouped as sample information (label, date, location). Our approach identified up to 24 additional unique samples in external consult notes that could have been overlooked. Our classification model obtained 100% accuracy on the basis of 10-fold cross-validation. Precision, recall, and F1 for class-specific named-entity recognition models show strong performance. CONCLUSION Through a combination of natural language processing and machine learning, we devised a re-implementable and automated approach that can accurately extract specimen attributes from semistructured pathology notes to dynamically populate a tumor registry.

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