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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Corine Ngufor ◽  
Josias Fagbohoun ◽  
Abel Agbevo ◽  
Hanafy Ismail ◽  
Joseph D. Challenger ◽  

Abstract Background Pyrethroid-PBO nets were conditionally recommended for control of malaria transmitted by mosquitoes with oxidase-based pyrethroid-resistance based on epidemiological evidence of additional protective effect with Olyset Plus compared to a pyrethroid-only net (Olyset Net). Entomological studies can be used to assess the comparative performance of other brands of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs to Olyset Plus. Methods An experimental hut trial was performed in Cové, Benin to compare PermaNet 3.0 (deltamethrin plus PBO on roof panel only) to Olyset Plus (permethrin plus PBO on all panels) against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Both nets were tested unwashed and after 20 standardized washes compared to Olyset Net. Laboratory bioassays were also performed to help explain findings in the experimental huts. Results With unwashed nets, mosquito mortality was higher in huts with PermaNet 3.0 compared to Olyset Plus (41% vs. 28%, P < 0.001). After 20 washes, mortality declined significantly with PermaNet 3.0 (41% unwashed vs. 17% after washing P < 0.001), but not with Olyset Plus (28% unwashed vs. 24% after washing P = 0.433); Olyset Plus induced significantly higher mortality than PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net after 20 washes. PermaNet 3.0 showed a higher wash retention of PBO compared to Olyset Plus. A non-inferiority analysis performed with data from unwashed and washed nets together using a margin recommended by the WHO, showed that PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in terms of mosquito mortality (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 27% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.528, 95%CI = 1.02–2.29) but not in reducing mosquito feeding (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 30% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.192, 95%CI = 0.77–1.84). Both pyrethroid-PBO nets were superior to Olyset Net. Conclusion Olyset Plus outperformed PermaNet 3.0 in terms of its ability to cause greater margins of improved mosquito mortality compared to a standard pyrethroid net, after multiple standardized washes. However, using a margin of non-inferiority defined by the WHO, PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in inducing mosquito mortality. Considering the low levels of mortality observed and increasing pyrethroid-resistance in West Africa, it is unclear whether either of these nets would demonstrate the same epidemiological impact observed in community trials in East Africa.

2022 ◽  
Shengfeng LIU ◽  
Bai Gao ◽  
Huanhuan Qin ◽  
Qin Ge ◽  
Huilan Ling ◽  

Abstract Located in semi-arid regions of Hulun Buir League in China Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hailar Basin is a region with less precipitation, where groundwater is the most important source for water supply. It is very important to study groundwater characteristics and hydrogeochemical processes for better management of the groundwater resource.The current status of fluorine (F), arsenic (As), and uranium (U) co-contamination exists in groundwater of the Hailar Basin, China. To understand the concentration mechanism of F, As, and U in groundwater in the study area, groundwater samples were collected for detection and analysis. The results showed that the main hydrochemical types were Cl-Na, HCO3-Na, and HCO3-Ca in the study area. The average values of F, As, and U were 3.94 mg/L, 0.04 mg/L, and 0.07 mg/L, respectively, which all exceeded the World Health Organization(WHO) guidelines. Through the Gibbs diagram and the end member diagram, it can be seen that the groundwater in the study area is mainly affected by the hydrogeochemical effects of evaporative crystallization, rock weathering mechanism, and the dissolution of silicate rock and evaporative salt rock minerals. Mineral dissolution, cation exchange, and weakly alkaline environment are important factors affecting F concentration; Low NO3ˉ and SO42- will cause a reducing environment and the competitive adsorption of HCO3ˉ will promote As pollution; The concentration of Ca2+,Mg2+, SO42-,and NO3ˉ have a great influence on the concentration of U.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Quraish Sserwanja ◽  
Linet M. Mutisya ◽  
Milton W. Musaba

Abstract Background Early initiation of antenatal care (ANC) within the first trimester is highly recommended in the current 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Mass media has the potential to promote early initiation of ANC because it has been used successfully in several programs. However, there is paucity of literature on the effect of exposure to different types of media on the timing of ANC initiation in Uganda. Our study aimed at exploring associations between exposure to different types of mass media and timing of ANC initiation among women in Uganda. Methods We used a cross sectional study design, to conduct a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). We included weighted data of all the 10,152 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between exposure to different types of mass media and early initiation of ANC. Results Almost a third of the women (2953/10,152, 29.1%, 95% CI 27.9–29.6) initiated their first ANC contact in the first trimester. Women who listened to radio at least once a week (adjusted OR (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30) and those who watched television less than once a week (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07–1.53) had higher odds of initiating ANC earlier compared to their counterparts not exposed to radio and television respectively. Conclusion Exposure to radio and television is associated with timing of ANC initiation in Uganda. Importantly, the two types of mass media have the potential to reach women with low levels of education and encourage them to utilize maternal health services. The Ugandan government needs to prioritize and intensify the use of radio and television to promote the benefits associated with timing of ANC initiation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Neerja Chowdhary ◽  
Corrado Barbui ◽  
Kaarin J. Anstey ◽  
Miia Kivipelto ◽  
Mariagnese Barbera ◽  

With population ageing worldwide, dementia poses one of the greatest global challenges for health and social care in the 21st century. In 2019, around 55 million people were affected by dementia, with the majority living in low- and middle-income countries. Dementia leads to increased costs for governments, communities, families and individuals. Dementia is overwhelming for the family and caregivers of the person with dementia, who are the cornerstone of care and support systems throughout the world. To assist countries in addressing the global burden of dementia, the World Health Organisation (WHO) developed the Global Action Plan on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017–2025. It proposes actions to be taken by governments, civil society, and other global and regional partners across seven action areas, one of which is dementia risk reduction. This paper is based on WHO Guidelines on risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia and presents recommendations on evidence-based, multisectoral interventions for reducing dementia risks, considerations for their implementation and policy actions. These global evidence-informed recommendations were developed by WHO, following a rigorous guideline development methodology and involved a panel of academicians and clinicians with multidisciplinary expertise and representing geographical diversity. The recommendations are considered under three broad headings: lifestyle and behaviour interventions, interventions for physical health conditions and specific interventions. By supporting health and social care professionals, particularly by improving their capacity to provide gender and culturally appropriate interventions to the general population, the risk of developing dementia can be potentially reduced, or its progression delayed.

Soudabeh Alizadeh Matboo ◽  
Shahram Nazari ◽  
Ali Niapour ◽  
Mehdi Vosoughi Niri ◽  
Esrafil Asgari ◽  

Abstract This study investigated the bacterial removal using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) modified with poly-amidoamine dendrimer macromolecule (PAMAM, G3). The PAMAM G3/TiO2 (nanohybrid) was used to specify antibacterial properties via broth microdilution (MBC-Minimum Bactericidal Concentration and MIC-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration- determination), paper disc diffusion, and surface plate count methods. The nanohybrid was characterized via the different techniques. The effects of different factors including initial bacteria count, run time, solution pH, and the nanohybrid concentration were studied. The nanohybrid cytotoxicity was studied on AGS and MKN45 cells line by MTT assay. It was revealed that the nanohybrid was effective in intercepting both bacterial strains growth. The MIC value for S. aureus and E. coli were determined to be 4 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC value for both strains were calculated to be 32 μg/mL. The results showed removal efficiency of 100% for S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in optimum situation. The decrease in cell viability in the dosage of 32 μg/mL after 72 h treatment for AGS and MKN45 cells line were shown to be 6.2 and 4.6%, respectively. The nanohybrid was able to decrease the S. aureus and E. coli count in solution, which meets the drinking water criterions aligned with WHO guidelines.

2022 ◽  

Abstract The coronavirus is an accurate disease and this virus-related pandemic is hammering human health and increased the public health emergency till now. The main objective of this study is to find out the death, mortality ratio, new cases, and recoveries case identification and correlation analysis between them using regression technique on legislative assembly elections from India. This study encompassed the present disorder of India throughout the elections time in India from 27th March 2021 to 29th April 2020. Statistical analysis was developed by the covid-19 database for monitoring and analyzing the health statutes during elections. Mortality ratio, the relation between active and death cases, active cases and recover cases in India are calculating corona affected data. The results show that death cases were high in the second wave of coronavirus in India. The correlation between daily death and new cases was strong positive (R2= 0.9306). The relationship between recoveries and death was stronger positive (R2=0.9832). The daily death and active cases collation indicated that strong positive (R2= 0.9703). The COVID-19 is dangerous to people's health. The virus is more life-threatening and if people will not follow the WHO guidelines, and it strength demonstration additional havoc very shortly.

2022 ◽  
Wayne Gao ◽  
Mattia Sanna ◽  
Yea-Hung Chen ◽  
Min-Kuang Tsai ◽  
Po-Jung Lu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFor the first time, the 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity recommend reducing sedentary behaviors due to their health consequences. Less is known on the effect of prolonged occupational sitting, especially in the context of low physical activity engagement.This study aims at quantifying cardiovascular risk associated with prolonged occupational sitting and determining the additional amount of physical activity that may be needed to attenuate it.MethodsA cohort comprising 481,688 participants in a health surveillance program in Taiwan was followed between 1996 and 2017, collecting data on occupational sitting time, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) habits, lifestyle, and metabolic parameters. The all-cause and expanded cardiovascular disease (CVD + diabetes mellitus + kidney disease) mortality associated with three occupational sitting volumes (mostly sitting, alternating sitting and non-sitting, mostly non-sitting) was analyzed applying multivariate Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for all participants and by subgroups, including five levels of LTPA. Deaths in the first two years of follow-up were excluded to avoid reverse causality.ResultsThe study recorded 26,257 deaths during a mean follow-up period of 12.85 years. Individuals mostly sitting at work had a higher mortality risk than those mostly non-sitting, both from all causes (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11-1.20) and from expanded CVD (HR:1.46, 95% CI:1.35-1.58), after adjusting for gender, age, education, smoking, drinking, and body mass index. Individuals alternating sitting and non-sitting at work did not experience increased risk for all-cause mortality, compared to individuals mostly non-sitting at work (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.97-1.05), but did experience higher risk of deaths due to expanded CVD (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23). Individuals engaged in low (15-29 min/day) or no (<15 min/day) LTPA, who mostly sit at work, would need to increase their LTPA by 15 and 30 minutes respectively to reduce their risk of mortality to that of similarly inactive individuals who mostly do not sit at work.ConclusionsAs part of modern lifestyles, prolonged occupational sitting is considered normal and has not received due attention, even though its deleterious effect has been largely proved. Alternating sitting and non-sitting at work, as well as an extra 15 to 30 min/day of LTPA, can attenuate the harms of prolonged occupational sitting. Thus, emphasizing the associated harms and suggesting workplace system changes could help the society to de-normalize this common behavior, similarly to the process of de-normalizing smoking.

2022 ◽  
Abir Chakravorty

Development of desalination technologies has been identified as vital to fulfilling future water demand. Directional solvent extraction is one of the promising membrane-less seawater desalination method. Membrane based desalination technologies incur a higher cost and are subjected to fouling after certain period of time of operation and needs regular maintenance and monitoring. It is believed that, overcoming these drawbacks is possible by working in the millimeter scale through the incorporation of pulsatile flow and air damper. This work presents a theoretical approach designed for a certain nominal length of an air damper, placed on the top of the extraction column, with the flow in the desalination unit being semi pulsatile combined with secondary pulsation generated due to air suspension during solvent extraction applied for desalination operation. Henceforth a theoretical approach based on the above stated parameters, it is found theoretically that with increase in flow pulsation amplitude and frequency the extracted salt concentration in solvent increases. The application of infra red radiation in preheating section with the help of a infrared heating device is the crucial part of DSE process, cooling is planned to achieve via a heat exchanger or atmospheric cooling. The total exergy and energy calculations will be conducted to see the energy requirement for the process. It is planned to calculate the salt separation efficiency of sea water (on the basis of WHO guidelines) to fresh water, alongwith flow rate and processing time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 1130-1133
Ika Afifah Nugraheni ◽  
Hapsari Wahyuningsih

At the beginning of 2020, the world was shocked by the emergence of a new disease outbreak, Covid-19, which was caused by the SARS COV-2 virus. The school environment is one of the places that is vulnerable to the spread of this virus. An effective preventive measure against the spread of Covid-19 is the application of clean and healthy living habits (PHBS) in the school environment, one of which is the habit of washing hands. However, not all residents in the school understand how to wash their hands properly. The purpose of this service activity is to provide education about proper hands washing according to WHO for MI Muhammadiyah Need in Magelang Regency. The material needed for the implementation of the activity is a hand sanitizer liquid made from 70% active alcohol as a hand disinfectant. Implementation of community service activities using demonstration methods and hands-on practice of hands washing according to WHO. Based on this service activity, not all members of the MI Muhammadiyah Need was known the steps for hands washing properly according to WHO. Through this service, school residents are given knowledge and practice the 8 steps of hand washing according to WHO using a handsanitizer. Thus, school residents are expected to be able to apply proper hand washing methods in their daily life and socialize it to other individuals school residents are given knowledge and practice the 8 steps of hand washing according to WHO using a handsanitizer. Thus, school residents are expected to be able to apply proper hand washing methods in their daily life and socialize it to other individuals school residents are given knowledge and practice the 8 steps of hand washing according to WHO using a handsanitizer. Thus, school residents are expected to be able to apply proper hand washing methods in their daily life and socialize it to other individuals

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Cinzia Signorini ◽  
Elena Moretti ◽  
Daria Noto ◽  
Lucia Micheli ◽  
Rosetta Ponchia ◽  

Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. They are formed by enzymatic oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are divided into families including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), produced by docosahexaenoic acid, exerts anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities. This research aimed to investigate the implication of seminal RvD1 in human infertility. Infertile patients (n° 67) were grouped based on pathological reproductive conditions as idiopathic infertility, varicocele, and leukocytospermia; the fourth group was composed of fertile men (n° 18). Sperm characteristics were evaluated by light microscopy (WHO guidelines) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The seminal levels of RvD1 and F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoPs) were dosed. In twenty men (6 fertile men, 8 with varicocele, 6 with leukocytospermia) seminal phospholipase A2, iron, cholesterol, transferrin, estradiol, ferritin, testosterone, and sperm membrane fatty acids were detected. The results indicated that: (i) RvD1 amount was positively correlated with F2-IsoPs and reduced sperm quality; (ii) RvD1 levels were significantly higher in patients with leukocytospermia, varicocele, and idiopathic infertility compared to fertile men; (iii) RvD1 increased along with other markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as fatty acids content and clinical biomarkers. This study suggests a panel of inflammatory markers and lipid mediators for a diagnosis of inflammatory status and a subsequent appropriate therapeutic approach.

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