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2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (04) ◽  
pp. 261-266
Author(s):  
Nosheen Sarwar ◽  
◽  
Saba Ansar ◽  
Momminah Qamar

OBJECTIVES: The current study is conducted to assess the knowledge and behavior of dentists in Pakistan and various practice modifications adopted in response to current outbreak of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: Well-constructed online questionnaires were distributed among 300 subjects including dental students (3rd year and 4th year), house surgeons, and dental surgeons of two public hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan. RESULTS: 90% of dentists are afraid of getting the infection and reluctant to continue their dental practice. Most of the dentists 95% are aware of the mode of transmission of disease and follow WHO guidelines but still a large number of dentists are in fear and anxious to perform only emergency dental procedures. CONCLUSION: Most dentists resume their dental practice by following WHO new guidelines related to practice in COVID -19 outbreak but still a significant number of dentists close their dental practice for an indefinite period due to anxiety and fear of being ill or got infected by COVID-19. KEYWORD: anxiety and fear, practice modifications, outbreak, COVID-19, knowledge and behavior


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 127-136
Author(s):  
Risda Hartati ◽  
Tri Baskoro T. Satoto ◽  
Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati ◽  
Mutiara Widawati

The incidence rate (IR) of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Papua Province in 2017 was8.04 per 100,000 population, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.12%. In 2016, the Health Offi ce ofJayapura City declared six urban villages as high endemic areas, four urban villages as high sporadicareas, and ten villages as DHF-free areas from a total of 39 urban villages in Jayapura. This studyaims to analyze larval by House index [HI], Container index [CI], Breateu index (BI), and Maya index[MI] as well as the distribution of vector Ae. aegypti in endemic, sporadic and DHF-free areas inJayapura City. The design of this study was a cross-sectional study. This research was conducted fromJanuary to March 2019. Subjects (375 houses) were surveyed according to WHO guidelines basedon its endemicity stratifi cation. Observations of mosquitos’ larvae were done using visual and singlelarvae methods. The result of this research showed that endemic areas had their HI, CI and BI as muchas 43.3%, 16.5%, and 90.0%, respectively, with density fi gure is six. Sporadic areas had their HI,CI and BI as much as 35.4%, 10.9%, and 57.5%, respectively, with density fi gure is fi ve. DHF-freeareas had their HI, CI, and BI as much as 14.8%, 5.7%, and 35.2%, respectively, with density fi gureis fi ve. The Maya index for endemic and sporadic areas was categorized as moderate, while DHF-freeareas were low.


Author(s):  
David Ecotière ◽  
Patrick Demizieux ◽  
Gwenaël Guillaume ◽  
Lise Giorgis-Allemand ◽  
Anne-Sophie Evrard

The WHO guidelines on environmental noise highlight that evidence on the health effects of wind turbine sound levels is either non-existent or of poor quality. In this context, a feasibility study was conducted in France in 2017. The objective was to suggest a methodology for calculating wind turbine sound levels in order to quantify the number of windfarms’ residents exposed to this sound. Based on a literature review, the Harmonoise model was selected for sound exposure calculation. It was validated by quantifying its uncertainties, and finally used to estimate the population exposed to wind turbine sound in metropolitan France. Compared to other environmental noise sources (e.g., transportation), sound exposure is very moderate, with more than 80% of the exposed people exposed to sound levels below 40 dBA. The total number of people exposed to more than 30 dBA is about 686,000 and 722,000 people for typical daytime and night-time meteorological conditions respectively, i.e., about 1% of the French population in 2017. These results represent the first ever assessment of sound exposure from wind turbines at the scale of the entire metropolitan France.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (12) ◽  
pp. 847-847
Author(s):  
Wilson Were ◽  
Anshu Banerjee
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Indrawati Kurnia Setyani ◽  
Wahyono Wahyono ◽  
Teuku Nanda Saifullah Sulaiman

Standardisasi merupakan suatu upaya untuk menjaga kualitas bahan baku yang berasal dari tanaman. Standardisasi meliputi parameter spesifik dan non spesifik. Kubebin merupakan senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam buah kemukus (<em>Piper cubeba </em>Lf.). Senyawa ini bisa digunakan sebagai marker untuk mengendalikan kualitas kemukus. Perbedaan tempat tumbuh memberi pengaruh terhadap variasi kadar kubebin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan standardisasi dan membandingkan kadar kubebin dari tiga daerah yang berbeda yaitu Kulonprogo, Magelang, dan Wonosobo sebagai bahan baku untuk pembuatan sediaan kapsul jamu sesak nafas. Kemukus diekstrak dengan metode maserasi. Kadar kubebin merupakan parameter utama dalam pemilihan sumber bahan baku. Penetapan kadar kubebin dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis-densitometri. Simplisia dengan kadar kubebin yang tertinggi selanjutnya dilakukan standardisasi. Standardisasi simplisia meliputi penetapan kadar air, kadar minyak atsiri, susut pengeringan, kadar abu, kadar abu tak larut asam, cemaran logam berat, residu pestisida dan aflatoksin total. Standardisasi mikrobiologi ekstrak meliputi angka kapang/ khamir, angka lempeng total, mikroba patogen (<em>E</em><em>scerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp </em>dan<em> Shigella sp</em>). Perbedaan tempat tumbuh tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar kubebin di dalam ekstrak tetapi berpengaruh terhadap randemen. Proses granulasi tidak memberikan pengaruh yang bermakna terhadap senyawa kubebin. Hasil standardisasi kemukus dari Wonosobo menunjukkan bahwa parameter non-spesifik untuk simplisia dan ekstrak memenuhi persyaratan bahan baku obat tradisional sesuai acuan standar <em>WHO Guidelines</em> dan Farmakope Herbal Indonesia.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thu A. Dam ◽  
Rachel Forse ◽  
Phuong M.T. Tran ◽  
Luan N.Q. Vo ◽  
Andrew J. Codlin ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In the field of tuberculosis (TB), Community Healthcare Workers (CHWs) have been engaged for advocacy, case detection, and patient support in a wide range of settings. Estimates predict large-sale shortfalls of healthcare workers in low- and middle-income settings by 2030 and strategies are needed to optimize the health workforce to achieve universal availability and accessibility of healthcare. In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines on best practices for CHW engagement, and identified remaining knowledge gaps. Stop TB Partnership’s TB REACH initiative has supported interventions using CHWs to deliver TB care in over 30 countries, and utilized the same primary indicator to measure project impact at the population-level for all TB active case finding projects, which makes the results comparable across multiple settings. This study compiled 10 years of implementation data from the initiative’s grantee network to begin to address key knowledge gaps in CHW networks. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing the TB REACH data repository (n=123) and primary survey responses (n=50) of project implementers. We designed a survey based on WHO guidelines to understand projects’ practices on CHW recruitment, training, activities, supervision, compensation, and sustainability. We segmented projects by TB notification impact and fitted linear random-effect regression models to identify practices associated with higher changes in notifications. Results Most projects employed CHWs for advocacy alongside case finding and holding activities. Model characteristics associated with higher project impact included incorporating e-learning in training and having the prospect of CHWs continuing their responsibilities at the close of a project. Factors that trended towards being associated with higher impact were community-based training, differentiated contracts, and non-monetary incentives. Conclusion In line with WHO guidelines, our findings emphasize that successful implementation approaches provide CHWs with comprehensive training, continuous supervision, fair compensation, and are integrated within the existing primary healthcare system. However, we encountered a great degree of heterogeneity in CHW engagement models, resulting in few practices clearly associated with higher notifications.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-10
Author(s):  
Bushra Saba ◽  

Green spaces are inevitable for people to live and grow. These spaces form an ambit for interaction with nature and people from myriad groups. This paper examines the availability of such spaces in ward no. 102S and 101S of South Delhi and the resident’s accessibility to these spaces. The green cover available per person in Sarita Vihar is 14.645 Sq m/Person which fulfils the URDPFI and WHO guidelines in contrary to 3.969 Sq m/Person for Abul fazal enclave. The Public parks are located towards the periphery in Sarita Vihar, more than the walking distance of 400m. 1 public park exists in Abul Fazal Enclave toward the extreme periphery accessible with a ticket of Rs 30 for the adults. It concludes giving possible recommendations at a micro level for better allocation of green spaces based on factors of density and context of the settlement.


Author(s):  
Bushra Saba ◽  

Green spaces are inevitable for people to live and grow. These spaces form an ambit for interaction with nature and people from myriad groups. This paper examines the availability of such spaces in ward no. 102S and 101S of South Delhi and the resident’s accessibility to these spaces. The green cover available per person in Sarita Vihar is 14.645 Sq m/Person which fulfils the URDPFI and WHO guidelines in contrary to 3.969 Sq m/Person for Abul fazal enclave. The Public parks are located towards the periphery in Sarita Vihar, more than the walking distance of 400m. 1 public park exists in Abul Fazal Enclave toward the extreme periphery accessible with a ticket of Rs 30 for the adults. It concludes giving possible recommendations at a micro level for better allocation of green spaces based on factors of density and context of the settlement.


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