model transformations
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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-71
K. Lano ◽  
S. Kolahdouz-Rahimi ◽  
S. Fang

In this article, we address how the production of model transformations (MT) can be accelerated by automation of transformation synthesis from requirements, examples, and metamodels. We introduce a synthesis process based on metamodel matching, correspondence patterns between metamodels, and completeness and consistency analysis of matches. We describe how the limitations of metamodel matching can be addressed by combining matching with automated requirements analysis and model transformation by example (MTBE) techniques. We show that in practical examples a large percentage of required transformation functionality can usually be constructed automatically, thus potentially reducing development effort. We also evaluate the efficiency of synthesised transformations. Our novel contributions are: The concept of correspondence patterns between metamodels of a transformation. Requirements analysis of transformations using natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML). Symbolic MTBE using “predictive specification” to infer transformations from examples. Transformation generation in multiple MT languages and in Java, from an abstract intermediate language.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Lorena Arcega ◽  
Jaime Font Arcega ◽  
Øystein Haugen ◽  
Carlos Cetina

The companies that have adopted the Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) paradigm have the advantage of working at a high level of abstraction. Nevertheless, they have the disadvantage of the lack of tools available to perform bug localization at the model level. In addition, in an MDE context, a bug can be related to different MDE artefacts, such as design-time models, model transformations, or run-time models. Starting the bug localization in the wrong place or with the wrong tool can lead to a result that is unsatisfactory. We evaluate how to apply the existing model-based approaches in order to mitigate the effect of starting the localization in the wrong place. We also take into account that software engineers can refine the results at different stages. In our evaluation, we compare different combinations of the application of bug localization approaches and human refinement. The combination of our approaches plus manual refinement obtains the best results. We performed a statistical analysis to provide evidence of the significance of the results. The conclusions obtained from this evaluation are: humans have to be involved at the right time in the process (or results can even get worse), and artefact-independence can be achieved without worsening the results.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 3150
Lars Huning ◽  
Elke Pulvermueller

In order to meet regulatory standards in the domain of safety-critical systems, these systems have to include a set of safety mechanisms depending on the Safety Integrity Level (SIL). This article proposes an approach for how such safety mechanisms may be generated automatically via Model-Driven Development (MDD), thereby improving developer productivity and decreasing the number of bugs that occur during manual implementation. The approach provides a structured way to define safety requirements, which may be parsed automatically and are used for the generation of software-implemented safety mechanisms, as well as the initial configuration of hardware-implemented safety mechanisms. The approach for software-implemented safety mechanisms relies on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for representing these mechanisms in the model and uses model transformations to realize them in an intermediate model, from which code may be generated with simple 1:1 mappings. The approach for hardware-implemented safety mechanisms builds upon a template-based code snippet repository and a graphical user interface for configuration. The approach is applied to the development of a safety-critical fire detection application and the runtime of the model transformations is evaluated, indicating a linear scalability of the transformation steps. Furthermore, we evaluate the runtime and memory overhead of the generated code.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 9-20
Carlo Frazzei ◽  
Davide Segantin ◽  
Patrizia Dolci ◽  
Alessandro Garufi ◽  

In light of the finalization of the new regulatory framework for market with the adoption of the FRTB at EU level through the publication of CRR III, financial institutions are consolidating the implementations aimed to comply with the new regulatory requirements. The main purpose of this article is to analyze how banks are preparing for the go-live of IMA FRTB reporting – expected to be in January 2024 – focusing on the challenges that they are facing especially in terms of model transformations. In particular, an in-depth analysis will be carried out on the main methodological issues of the new regulatory context technicalities,in order to provide guidelines and market best practices on the Internal Model Approach (IMA) topics shared between Front Office, Risk Management as well as Control Structures.

Stefan Höppner ◽  
Timo Kehrer ◽  
Matthias Tichy

AbstractModel transformations are among the key concepts of model-driven engineering (MDE), and dedicated model transformation languages (MTLs) emerged with the popularity of the MDE pssaradigm about 15 to 20 years ago. MTLs claim to increase the ease of development of model transformations by abstracting from recurring transformation aspects and hiding complex semantics behind a simple and intuitive syntax. Nonetheless, MTLs are rarely adopted in practice, there is still no empirical evidence for the claim of easier development, and the argument of abstraction deserves a fresh look in the light of modern general purpose languages (GPLs) which have undergone a significant evolution in the last two decades. In this paper, we report about a study in which we compare the complexity and size of model transformations written in three different languages, namely (i) the Atlas Transformation Language (ATL), (ii) Java SE5 (2004–2009), and (iii) Java SE14 (2020); the Java transformations are derived from an ATL specification using a translation schema we developed for our study. In a nutshell, we found that some of the new features in Java SE14 compared to Java SE5 help to significantly reduce the complexity of transformations written in Java by as much as 45%. At the same time, however, the relative amount of complexity that stems from aspects that ATL can hide from the developer, which is about 40% of the total complexity, stays about the same. Furthermore we discovered that while transformation code in Java SE14 requires up to 25% less lines of code, the number of words written in both versions stays about the same. And while the written number of words stays about the same their distribution throughout the code changes significantly. Based on these results, we discuss the concrete advancements in newer Java versions. We also discuss to which extent new language advancements justify writing transformations in a general purpose language rather than a dedicated transformation language. We further indicate potential avenues for future research on the comparison of MTLs and GPLs in a model transformation context.

Aarón Montalvo ◽  
Pablo Parra ◽  
Óscar Rodríguez Polo ◽  
Alberto Carrasco ◽  
Antonio Da Silva ◽  

AbstractThe development process of on-board software applications can benefit from model-driven engineering techniques. Model validation and model transformations can be applied to drive the activities of specification, requirements definition, and system-level validation and verification according to the space software engineering standards ECSS-E-ST-40 and ECSS-Q-ST-80. This paper presents a model-driven approach to completing these activities by avoiding inconsistencies between the documents that support them and providing the ability to automatically generate the system-level validation tests that are run on the Ground Support Equipment and the matrices required to complete the software verification. A demonstrator of the approach has been built using as a proof of concept a subset of the functionality of the software of the control unit of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on-board Solar Orbiter.

2021 ◽  
Jolan Philippe ◽  
Massimo Tisi ◽  
Hélène Coullon ◽  
Gerson Sunyé

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
Claudio Conti

AbstractWe use neural networks to represent the characteristic function of many-body Gaussian states in the quantum phase space. By a pullback mechanism, we model transformations due to unitary operators as linear layers that can be cascaded to simulate complex multi-particle processes. We use the layered neural networks for non-classical light propagation in random interferometers, and compute boson pattern probabilities by automatic differentiation. This is a viable strategy for training Gaussian boson sampling. We demonstrate that multi-particle events in Gaussian boson sampling can be optimized by a proper design and training of the neural network weights. The results are potentially useful to the creation of new sources and complex circuits for quantum technologies.

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