entity recognition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Syed Atif Moqurrab ◽  
Adeel Anjum ◽  
Abid Khan ◽  
Mansoor Ahmed ◽  
Awais Ahmad ◽  

Due to the Internet of Things evolution, the clinical data is exponentially growing and using smart technologies. The generated big biomedical data is confidential, as it contains a patient’s personal information and findings. Usually, big biomedical data is stored over the cloud, making it convenient to be accessed and shared. In this view, the data shared for research purposes helps to reveal useful and unexposed aspects. Unfortunately, sharing of such sensitive data also leads to certain privacy threats. Generally, the clinical data is available in textual format (e.g., perception reports). Under the domain of natural language processing, many research studies have been published to mitigate the privacy breaches in textual clinical data. However, there are still limitations and shortcomings in the current studies that are inevitable to be addressed. In this article, a novel framework for textual medical data privacy has been proposed as Deep-Confidentiality . The proposed framework improves Medical Entity Recognition (MER) using deep neural networks and sanitization compared to the current state-of-the-art techniques. Moreover, the new and generic utility metric is also proposed, which overcomes the shortcomings of the existing utility metric. It provides the true representation of sanitized documents as compared to the original documents. To check our proposed framework’s effectiveness, it is evaluated on the i2b2-2010 NLP challenge dataset, which is considered one of the complex medical data for MER. The proposed framework improves the MER with 7.8% recall, 7% precision, and 3.8% F1-score compared to the existing deep learning models. It also improved the data utility of sanitized documents up to 13.79%, where the value of the  k is 3.

Mohammad Sadegh Sheikhaei ◽  
Hasan Zafari ◽  
Yuan Tian

In this article, we propose a new encoding scheme for named entity recognition (NER) called Joined Type-Length encoding (JoinedTL). Unlike most existing named entity encoding schemes, which focus on flat entities, JoinedTL can label nested named entities in a single sequence. JoinedTL uses a packed encoding to represent both type and span of a named entity, which not only results in less tagged tokens compared to existing encoding schemes, but also enables it to support nested NER. We evaluate the effectiveness of JoinedTL for nested NER on three nested NER datasets: GENIA in English, GermEval in German, and PerNest, our newly created nested NER dataset in Persian. We apply CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF, a three-layer sequence tagging model on three datasets encoded using JoinedTL and two existing nested NE encoding schemes, i.e., JoinedBIO and JoinedBILOU. Our experiment results show that CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF trained with JoinedTL encoded datasets can achieve competitive F1 scores as the ones trained with datasets encoded by two other encodings, but with 27%–48% less tagged tokens. To leverage the power of three different encodings, i.e., JoinedTL, JoinedBIO, and JoinedBILOU, we propose an encoding-based ensemble method for nested NER. Evaluation results show that the ensemble method achieves higher F1 scores on all datasets than the three models each trained using one of the three encodings. By using nested NE encodings including JoinedTL with CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF, we establish new state-of-the-art performance with an F1 score of 83.7 on PerNest, 74.9 on GENIA, and 70.5 on GermEval, surpassing two recent neural models specially designed for nested NER.

Xianwen Liao ◽  
Yongzhong Huang ◽  
Peng Yang ◽  
Lei Chen

By defining the computable word segmentation unit and studying its probability characteristics, we establish an unsupervised statistical language model (SLM) for a new pre-trained sequence labeling framework in this article. The proposed SLM is an optimization model, and its objective is to maximize the total binding force of all candidate word segmentation units in sentences under the condition of no annotated datasets and vocabularies. To solve SLM, we design a recursive divide-and-conquer dynamic programming algorithm. By integrating SLM with the popular sequence labeling models, Vietnamese word segmentation, part-of-speech tagging and named entity recognition experiments are performed. The experimental results show that our SLM can effectively promote the performance of sequence labeling tasks. Just using less than 10% of training data and without using a dictionary, the performance of our sequence labeling framework is better than the state-of-the-art Vietnamese word segmentation toolkit VnCoreNLP on the cross-dataset test. SLM has no hyper-parameter to be tuned, and it is completely unsupervised and applicable to any other analytic language. Thus, it has good domain adaptability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Kahyun Lee ◽  
Mehmet Kayaalp ◽  
Sam Henry ◽  
Özlem Uzuner

Many modern entity recognition systems, including the current state-of-the-art de-identification systems, are based on bidirectional long short-term memory (biLSTM) units augmented by a conditional random field (CRF) sequence optimizer. These systems process the input sentence by sentence. This approach prevents the systems from capturing dependencies over sentence boundaries and makes accurate sentence boundary detection a prerequisite. Since sentence boundary detection can be problematic especially in clinical reports, where dependencies and co-references across sentence boundaries are abundant, these systems have clear limitations. In this study, we built a new system on the framework of one of the current state-of-the-art de-identification systems, NeuroNER, to overcome these limitations. This new system incorporates context embeddings through forward and backward n -grams without using sentence boundaries. Our context-enhanced de-identification (CEDI) system captures dependencies over sentence boundaries and bypasses the sentence boundary detection problem altogether. We enhanced this system with deep affix features and an attention mechanism to capture the pertinent parts of the input. The CEDI system outperforms NeuroNER on the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge dataset, the 2014 i2b2 shared task de-identification dataset, and the 2016 CEGS N-GRID de-identification dataset ( p < 0.01 ). All datasets comprise narrative clinical reports in English but contain different note types varying from discharge summaries to psychiatric notes. Enhancing CEDI with deep affix features and the attention mechanism further increased performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Yu Gu ◽  
Robert Tinn ◽  
Hao Cheng ◽  
Michael Lucas ◽  
Naoto Usuyama ◽  

Pretraining large neural language models, such as BERT, has led to impressive gains on many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, most pretraining efforts focus on general domain corpora, such as newswire and Web. A prevailing assumption is that even domain-specific pretraining can benefit by starting from general-domain language models. In this article, we challenge this assumption by showing that for domains with abundant unlabeled text, such as biomedicine, pretraining language models from scratch results in substantial gains over continual pretraining of general-domain language models. To facilitate this investigation, we compile a comprehensive biomedical NLP benchmark from publicly available datasets. Our experiments show that domain-specific pretraining serves as a solid foundation for a wide range of biomedical NLP tasks, leading to new state-of-the-art results across the board. Further, in conducting a thorough evaluation of modeling choices, both for pretraining and task-specific fine-tuning, we discover that some common practices are unnecessary with BERT models, such as using complex tagging schemes in named entity recognition. To help accelerate research in biomedical NLP, we have released our state-of-the-art pretrained and task-specific models for the community, and created a leaderboard featuring our BLURB benchmark (short for Biomedical Language Understanding & Reasoning Benchmark) at https://aka.ms/BLURB .

Information ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Nestor Suat-Rojas ◽  
Camilo Gutierrez-Osorio ◽  
Cesar Pedraza

Traffic accident detection is an important strategy governments can use to implement policies intended to reduce accidents. They usually use techniques such as image processing, RFID devices, among others. Social network mining has emerged as a low-cost alternative. However, social networks come with several challenges such as informal language and misspellings. This paper proposes a method to extract traffic accident data from Twitter in Spanish. The method consists of four phases. The first phase establishes the data collection mechanisms. The second consists of vectorially representing the messages and classifying them as accidents or non-accidents. The third phase uses named entity recognition techniques to detect the location. In the fourth phase, locations pass through a geocoder that returns their geographic coordinates. This method was applied to Bogota city and the data on Twitter were compared with the official traffic information source; comparisons showed some influence of Twitter on the commercial and industrial area of the city. The results reveal how effective the information on accidents reported on Twitter can be. It should therefore be considered as a source of information that may complement existing detection methods.

2022 ◽  
Sebastião Pais ◽  
João Cordeiro ◽  
Muhammad Jamil

Abstract Nowadays, the use of language corpora for many purposes has increased significantly. General corpora exist for numerous languages, but research often needs more specialized corpora. The Web’s rapid growth has significantly improved access to thousands of online documents, highly specialized texts and comparable texts on the same subject covering several languages in electronic form. However, research has continued to concentrate on corpus annotation instead of corpus creation tools. Consequently, many researchers create their corpora, independently solve problems, and generate project-specific systems. The corpus construction is used for many NLP applications, including machine translation, information retrieval, and question-answering. This paper presents a new NLP Corpus and Services in the Cloud called HULTIG-C. HULTIG-C is characterized by various languages that include unique annotations such as keywords set, sentences set, named entity recognition set, and multiword set. Moreover, a framework incorporates the main components for license detection, language identification, boilerplate removal and document deduplication to process the HULTIG-C. Furthermore, this paper presents some potential issues related to constructing multilingual corpora from the Web.

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