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2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Leonid Barenboim ◽  
Michael Elkin ◽  
Uri Goldenberg

We consider graph coloring and related problems in the distributed message-passing model. Locally-iterative algorithms are especially important in this setting. These are algorithms in which each vertex decides about its next color only as a function of the current colors in its 1-hop-neighborhood . In STOC’93 Szegedy and Vishwanathan showed that any locally-iterative Δ + 1-coloring algorithm requires Ω (Δ log Δ + log * n ) rounds, unless there exists “a very special type of coloring that can be very efficiently reduced” [ 44 ]. No such special coloring has been found since then. This led researchers to believe that Szegedy-Vishwanathan barrier is an inherent limitation for locally-iterative algorithms and to explore other approaches to the coloring problem [ 2 , 3 , 19 , 32 ]. The latter gave rise to faster algorithms, but their heavy machinery that is of non-locally-iterative nature made them far less suitable to various settings. In this article, we obtain the aforementioned special type of coloring. Specifically, we devise a locally-iterative Δ + 1-coloring algorithm with running time O (Δ + log * n ), i.e., below Szegedy-Vishwanathan barrier. This demonstrates that this barrier is not an inherent limitation for locally-iterative algorithms. As a result, we also achieve significant improvements for dynamic, self-stabilizing, and bandwidth-restricted settings. This includes the following results: We obtain self-stabilizing distributed algorithms for Δ + 1-vertex-coloring, (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring, maximal independent set, and maximal matching with O (Δ + log * n ) time. This significantly improves previously known results that have O(n) or larger running times [ 23 ]. We devise a (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring algorithm in the CONGEST model with O (Δ + log * n ) time and O (Δ)-edge-coloring in the Bit-Round model with O (Δ + log n ) time. The factors of log * n and log n are unavoidable in the CONGEST and Bit-Round models, respectively. Previously known algorithms had superlinear dependency on Δ for (2Δ - 1)-edge-coloring in these models. We obtain an arbdefective coloring algorithm with running time O (√ Δ + log * n ). Such a coloring is not necessarily proper, but has certain helpful properties. We employ it to compute a proper (1 + ε)Δ-coloring within O (√ Δ + log * n ) time and Δ + 1-coloring within O (√ Δ log Δ log * Δ + log * n ) time. This improves the recent state-of-the-art bounds of Barenboim from PODC’15 [ 2 ] and Fraigniaud et al. from FOCS’16 [ 19 ] by polylogarithmic factors. Our algorithms are applicable to the SET-LOCAL model [ 25 ] (also known as the weak LOCAL model). In this model a relatively strong lower bound of Ω (Δ 1/3 ) is known for Δ + 1-coloring. However, most of the coloring algorithms do not work in this model. (In Reference [ 25 ] only Linial’s O (Δ 2 )-time algorithm and Kuhn-Wattenhofer O (Δ log Δ)-time algorithms are shown to work in it.) We obtain the first linear-in-Δ Δ + 1-coloring algorithms that work also in this model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-71
K. Lano ◽  
S. Kolahdouz-Rahimi ◽  
S. Fang

In this article, we address how the production of model transformations (MT) can be accelerated by automation of transformation synthesis from requirements, examples, and metamodels. We introduce a synthesis process based on metamodel matching, correspondence patterns between metamodels, and completeness and consistency analysis of matches. We describe how the limitations of metamodel matching can be addressed by combining matching with automated requirements analysis and model transformation by example (MTBE) techniques. We show that in practical examples a large percentage of required transformation functionality can usually be constructed automatically, thus potentially reducing development effort. We also evaluate the efficiency of synthesised transformations. Our novel contributions are: The concept of correspondence patterns between metamodels of a transformation. Requirements analysis of transformations using natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML). Symbolic MTBE using “predictive specification” to infer transformations from examples. Transformation generation in multiple MT languages and in Java, from an abstract intermediate language.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
R. Vignesh ◽  
V. Nirmal Coumare ◽  
S. Gopalakrishnan ◽  
P. Karthikeyan

Abstract Background and aim Chronic otitis media is defined as a chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft producing irreversible pathological changes. The myringoplasty aims at the reconstruction of the tympanic membrane using a graft material. Autologous platelet-rich plasma can be used along with the graft to have a successful outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma on graft uptake in myringoplasty. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 76 patients. All patients were above 18 and below 55 years of age diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media and were planned for myringoplasty. The participants were randomly allotted to two groups by block randomization (block of 4). Intra-operatively, group I (n=38) received platelet-rich plasma–soaked gel foam and group II (n=38) was taken as the control group who received saline-soaked gel foam and examined by a blinded examiner at the end of 1st and 3rd months. Results The mean air-bone gap reduction post-operatively in the platelet-rich plasma group was 8.68 ± 4.8 (P value 0.034) and 6.05 ± 4.05 in the control group. The improvement in pure-tone average in the platelet-rich plasma group (P = 0.009) is more than that in the control group. The graft uptake was higher among the platelet-rich plasma group than the control group both at 1st and 3rd months (P value 0.049) which were statistically significant. Conclusion The present study concludes that the usage of platelet-rich plasma in the conventional myringoplasty technique has improved the success rate of graft uptake and reduced the graft migration. Trial registration Clinical Trials Registry-India (ICMR-NIMS) CTRI/2020/04/024416. Date of registration: 01/04/2020. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 06/04/2020. URL of the trial registry: Highlights Usage of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in conventional myringoplasty in underlay technique. Assessment of graft uptake, percentage of perforation closure, and the audiological outcome. Significant mean reduction of ABG in the PRP group. Significant improvement in PTA average in the PRP group. Graft uptake and percentage of perforation closure were higher in the PRP group and the control group. PRP is also beneficial in revision cases.

Héctor Serrano-Coll ◽  
Hollman Miller ◽  
Camilo Guzmán ◽  
Ricardo Rivero ◽  
Bertha Gastelbondo ◽  

Abstract Introduction Currently, more than 4.5 billion doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been applied worldwide. However, some developing countries are still a long way from achieving herd immunity through vaccination. In some territories, such as the Colombian Amazon, mass immunization strategies have been implemented with the CoronaVac® vaccine. Due to its proximity to Brazil, where one of the variants of interest of SARS-CoV-2 circulates. Objective To determine the effectiveness of the CoronaVac® vaccine in a population of the Colombian Amazon. Methods Between February 24, 2021, and August 10, 2021, a descriptive observational study was carried out in which a population of individuals over 18 years of age immunized with two doses of the CoronaVac® vaccine was evaluated. The study site was in the municipality of Mitú, Vaupés, in southeastern Colombia, a region located in the Amazon bordering Brazil. Results. 99% of the urban population of the Mitú municipality were vaccinated with CoronaVac®. To date, 5.7% of vaccinated individuals have become ill, and only 0.1% of these require hospitalization. One death was attributable to COVID-19 has been reported among vaccinated individuals, and the vaccine has shown 94.3% effectiveness against mild disease and 99.9% against severe infection. Conclusions The herd immunity achieved through mass vaccination in this population has made it possible to reduce the rate of complicated cases and mortality from COVID-19 in this region of the Colombian Amazon. Highlights CoronaVac® has shown 94.3% effectiveness against mild disease and 99.9% against severe infection in this indigenous population. CoronaVac® reduces the mortality rate from 2.2% in 2020 to 0.22% in 2021. The herd immunity was achieved through mass vaccination in this region of the Colombian Amazon.

Ryan L. Payton ◽  
Yizhuo Sun ◽  
Domenico Chiarella ◽  
Andrew Kingdon

Abstract Mineral trapping (MT)is the most secure method of sequestering carbon for geologically significant periods of time. The processes behind MT fundamentally occur at the pore scale, therefore understanding which factors control MT at this scale is crucial. We present a finite elements advection–diffusion–reaction numerical model which uses true pore geometry model domains generated from $$\upmu$$ μ CT imaging. Using this model, we investigate the impact of pore geometry features such as branching, tortuosity and throat radii on the distribution and occurrence of carbonate precipitation in different pore networks over 2000 year simulated periods. We find evidence that a greater tortuosity, greater degree of branching of a pore network and narrower pore throats are detrimental to MT and contribute to the risk of clogging and reduction of connected porosity. We suggest that a tortuosity of less than 2 is critical in promoting greater precipitation per unit volume and should be considered alongside porosity and permeability when assessing reservoirs for geological carbon storage (GCS). We also show that the dominant influence on precipitated mass is the Damköhler number, or reaction rate, rather than the availability of reactive minerals, suggesting that this should be the focus when engineering effective subsurface carbon storage reservoirs for long term security. Article Highlights The rate of reaction has a stronger influence on mineral precipitation than the amount of available reactant. In a fully connected pore network preferential flow pathways still form which results in uneven precipitate distribution. A pore network tortuosity of <2 is recommended to facilitate greater carbon mineralisation.

Tone Nordvik ◽  
Eva M. Schumacher ◽  
Pål G. Larsson ◽  
Are H. Pripp ◽  
Gro C. Løhaugen ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence regarding the predictive value of early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)/EEG on neurodevelopmental outcomes at school age and beyond is lacking. We  aimed to investigate whether there is an association between early postnatal EEG and neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood. Methods This study is an observational prospective cohort study of premature infants with a gestational age <28 weeks. The total absolute band powers (tABP) of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands were analyzed from EEG recordings during the first three days of life. At 10–12 years of age, neurocognitive outcomes were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV), Vineland adaptive behavior scales 2nd edition, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The mean differences in tABP were assessed for individuals with normal versus unfavorable neurocognitive scores. Results Twenty-two infants were included. tABP values in all four frequency bands were significantly lower in infants with unfavorable results in the main composite scores (full intelligence quotient, adaptive behavior composite score, and global executive composite score) on all three tests (p < 0.05). Conclusions Early postnatal EEG has the potential to assist in predicting cognitive outcomes at 10–12 years of age in extremely premature infants <28 weeks’ gestation. Impact Evidence regarding the value of early postnatal EEG in long-term prognostication in preterm infants is limited. Our study suggests that early EEG spectral analysis correlates with neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood in extremely preterm infants. Early identification of infants at-risk of later impairment is important to initiate early and targeted follow-up and intervention.

Cían J. Henry ◽  
Gergana Semova ◽  
Ellen Barnes ◽  
Isabel Cotter ◽  
Tara Devers ◽  

Abstract Background The lack of a consensus definition of neonatal sepsis and a core outcome set (COS) proves a substantial impediment to research that influences policy and practice relevant to key stakeholders, patients and parents. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In the included studies, the described outcomes were extracted in accordance with the provisions of the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) handbook and registered. Results Among 884 abstracts identified, 90 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review. Only 30 manuscripts explicitly stated the primary and/or secondary outcomes. A total of 88 distinct outcomes were recorded across all 90 studies included. These were then assigned to seven different domains in line with the taxonomy for classification proposed by the COMET initiative. The most frequently reported outcome was survival with 74% (n = 67) of the studies reporting an outcome within this domain. Conclusions This systematic review constitutes one of the initial phases in the protocol for developing a COS in neonatal sepsis. The paucity of standardised outcome reporting in neonatal sepsis hinders comparison and synthesis of data. The final phase will involve a Delphi Survey to generate a COS in neonatal sepsis by consensus recommendation. Impact This systematic review identified a wide variation of outcomes reported among published RCTs on the management of neonatal sepsis. The paucity of standardised outcome reporting hinders comparison and synthesis of data and future meta-analyses with conclusive recommendations on the management of neonatal sepsis are unlikely. The final phase will involve a Delphi Survey to determine a COS by consensus recommendation with input from all relevant stakeholders.

Rachel Robinson ◽  
Polina Girchenko ◽  
Anna Pulakka ◽  
Kati Heinonen ◽  
Anna Lähdepuro ◽  

Abstract Background This study examined differences in ADHD symptoms and diagnosis between preterm and term-born adults (≥18 years), and tested if ADHD is related to gestational age, birth weight, multiple births, or neonatal complications in preterm borns. Methods (1) A systematic review compared ADHD symptom self-reports and diagnosis between preterm and term-born adults published in PubMed, Web of Science, and PROQUEST until April 2021; (2) a one-stage Individual Participant Data(IPD) meta-analysis (n = 1385 preterm, n = 1633 term; born 1978–1995) examined differences in self-reported ADHD symptoms[age 18–36 years]; and (3) a population-based register-linkage study of all live births in Finland (01/01/1987–31/12/1998; n = 37538 preterm, n = 691,616 term) examined ADHD diagnosis risk in adulthood (≥18 years) until 31/12/2016. Results Systematic review results were conflicting. In the IPD meta-analysis, ADHD symptoms levels were similar across groups (mean z-score difference 0.00;95% confidence interval [95% CI] −0.07, 0.07). Whereas in the register-linkage study, adults born preterm had a higher relative risk (RR) for ADHD diagnosis compared to term controls (RR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12, 1.41, p < 0.001). Among preterms, as gestation length (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.89, 0.97, p < 0.001) and SD birth weight z-score (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80, 0.97, p < 0.001) increased, ADHD risk decreased. Conclusions While preterm adults may not report higher levels of ADHD symptoms, their risk of ADHD diagnosis in adulthood is higher. Impact Preterm-born adults do not self-report higher levels of ADHD symptoms, yet are more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis in adulthood compared to term-borns. Previous evidence has consisted of limited sample sizes of adults and used different methods with inconsistent findings. This study assessed adult self-reported symptoms across 8 harmonized cohorts and contrasted the findings with diagnosed ADHD in a population-based register-linkage study. Preterm-born adults may not self-report increased ADHD symptoms. However, they have a higher risk of ADHD diagnosis, warranting preventive strategies and interventions to reduce the presentation of more severe ADHD symptomatology in adulthood.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261742
Claire Anne Holden ◽  
John Paul Bailey ◽  
Jane Elizabeth Taylor ◽  
Frank Martin ◽  
Paul Beckett ◽  

Extreme weather and globalisation leave our climate vulnerable to invasion by alien species, which have negative impacts on the economy, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Rapid and accurate identification is key to the control of invasive alien species. However, visually similar species hinder conservation efforts, for example hybrids within the Japanese Knotweed complex. We applied the novel method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics (mathematics applied to chemical data) to historic herbarium samples, taking 1580 spectra in total. Samples included five species from within the interbreeding Japanese Knotweed complex (including three varieties of Japanese Knotweed), six hybrids and five species from the wider Polygonaceae family. Spectral data from herbarium specimens were analysed with several chemometric techniques: support vector machines (SVM) for differentiation between plant types, supported by ploidy levels; principal component analysis loadings and spectral biomarkers to explore differences between the highly invasive Reynoutria japonica var. japonica and its non-invasive counterpart Reynoutria japonica var. compacta; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to investigate the relationship between plants within the Polygonaceae family, of the Fallopia, Reynoutria, Rumex and Fagopyrum genera. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with SVM successfully differentiated between plant type, leaf surface and geographical location, even in herbarium samples of varying age. Differences between Reynoutria japonica var. japonica and Reynoutria japonica var. compacta included the presence of two polysaccharides, glucomannan and xyloglucan, at higher concentrations in Reynoutria japonica var. japonica than Reynoutria japonica var. compacta. HCA analysis indicated that potential genetic linkages are sometimes masked by environmental factors; an effect that can either be reduced or encouraged by altering the input parameters. Entering the absorbance values for key wavenumbers, previously highlighted by principal component analysis loadings, favours linkages in the resultant HCA dendrogram corresponding to expected genetic relationships, whilst environmental associations are encouraged using the spectral fingerprint region. The ability to distinguish between closely related interbreeding species and hybrids, based on their spectral signature, raises the possibility of using this approach for determining the origin of Japanese knotweed infestations in legal cases where the clonal nature of plants currently makes this difficult and for the targeted control of species and hybrids. These techniques also provide a new method for supporting biogeographical studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bishwajeet Choubey ◽  
Virendra Kumar ◽  
Sekhar Chandra Dutta ◽  
Saurav Kumar Saikia

PurposeThe purpose of the paper is to mathematically model and predict the characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) rebar when subjected to elevated temperatures.Design/methodology/approachData were collected from a few selected studies for developing the constitutive relations. Using the exposed temperature and the duration of heating as independent variables, the empirical relations were developed for determining the changes in mechanical properties of TMT rebars at elevated temperatures.FindingsRecrystallization of TMT rebar crystals took place around 500 °C, which led to a decrease in the dislocation density along with the increase of large-sized grains, resulting in the degradation of strength. Up to a temperature range of 500 °C, the normalized fracture strength was higher, while the normalized fracture strain is not so high. This indicated a failure of brittle nature.Originality/valueThis is an original work done by others as a study to theoretically predict the mechanical behavior of TMT rebars when exposed to elevated temperature.HighlightsThe TMT bars showed brittleness characteristics up to 500 °C and showed ductility characteristics after that on account of its recrystallization and extensive tempering of the outer martensitic rim around that temperature.The comparison between the super ductile (SD) TMT and the regular TMT exhibit shows that the SD-TMT bars were about 1.5 times more ductile than the normal ones.

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