Dynamics of Langmuir Wave Spectra in Randomly Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasmas

2021 ◽  
Vol 923 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
C. Krafft ◽  
A. S. Volokitin

Abstract Solar coronal and wind plasmas often contain density fluctuations of various scales and amplitudes. The scattering of Langmuir wave turbulence on these inhomogeneities modifies the properties of the radiated electromagnetic emissions traveling from the Sun to the Earth. This paper shows the similarities between the physical results obtained by (i) a model based on the Zakharov equations, describing the self-consistent dynamics of Langmuir wave turbulence spectra in a plasma with external density fluctuations, and (ii) a modeling, within the framework of geometric optics approximation, of quasi-particles (representing plasmon quanta) moving in a fluctuating potential. It is shown that the dynamics of the Langmuir spectra is governed by anomalous diffusion processes, as a result of multiple scattering of waves on the density fluctuations; the same dynamics are observed in the momenta distributions of quasi-particles moving in potential structures with random inhomogeneities. These spectra and distributions are both characterized by a fast broadening during which energy is transported to larger wavevectors and momenta, exhibiting nonlinear time dependence of the average squares of wavevectors and quasi-particle momenta as well as non-Gaussian tails in the asymptotic stage. The corresponding diffusion coefficients depend on the time and are proportional to the square of the average level of density (or potential) fluctuations. It appears that anomalous transport and superdiffusion phenomena are responsible for the spectral broadening.

2020 ◽  
Catherine Krafft ◽  
Alexander Volokitin

<p>A new method to calculate semi-analytically the radiation efficiency of electromagnetic waves emitted at specific frequencies by electrostatic wave turbulence in solar plasmas with random density fluctuations is presented. It is applied to the case of electromagnetic emissions radiated at the fundamental plasma frequency ω<sub>p</sub> by beam-driven Langmuir wave turbulence during Type III solar bursts. It is supposed that the main radiation mechanism is the linear conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic waves on the background plasma density fluctuations, at constant frequency. Due to the presence of such inhomogeneities, the rates of electromagnetic radiation are modified compared to the case of uniform plasmas. Results show that the radiation efficiency of Langmuir wave turbulence into electromagnetic emissions at ω<sub>p</sub> is nearly constant asymptotically, the electromagnetic energy density growing linearly with time, and is proportional to the average level of density fluctuations. Comparisons with another analytical method developed by the authors and with space observations are satisfactory.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 924 (2) ◽  
pp. L24
C. Krafft ◽  
P. Savoini

Abstract The generation of Langmuir wave turbulence by a weak electron beam in a randomly inhomogeneous plasma and its subsequent electromagnetic radiation are studied owing to two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in conditions relevant to type III solar radio bursts. The essential impact of random density fluctuations of average levels of a few percents of the background plasma on the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation at the fundamental plasma frequency ω p is shown. Not only wave nonlinear interactions but also processes of Langmuir waves’ transformations on the density fluctuations contribute to the generation of such emissions. During the beam relaxation, the amount of electromagnetic energy radiated at ω p in a plasma with density fluctuations strongly exceeds that observed when the plasma is homogeneous. The fraction of Langmuir wave energy involved in the generation of electromagnetic emissions at ω p saturates around 10−4, i.e., one order of magnitude above that reached when the plasma is uniform. Moreover, whereas harmonic emission at 2ω p dominates over fundamental emission during the time evolution in a homogeneous plasma, fundamental emission is strongly dominant when the plasma contains density fluctuations, at least during several thousands of plasma periods before being overcome by harmonic emission when the total electromagnetic energy begins to saturate.

Fluids ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 69 ◽  
Catherine Krafft ◽  
Alexander S. Volokitin ◽  
Gaëtan Gauthier

The random density fluctuations observed in the solar wind plasma crucially influence on the Langmuir wave turbulence generated by energetic electron beams ejected during solar bursts. Those are powerful phenomena consisting of a chain of successive processes leading ultimately to strong electromagnetic emissions. The small-scale processes governing the interactions between the waves, the beams and the inhomogeneous plasmas need to be studied to explain such macroscopic phenomena. Moreover, the complexity induced by the plasma irregularities requires to find new approaches and modelling. Therefore theoretical and numerical tools were built to describe the Langmuir wave turbulence and the beam’s dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas, in the form of a self-consistent Hamiltonian model including a fluid description for the plasma and a kinetic approach for the beam. On this basis, numerical simulations were performed in order to shed light on the impact of the density fluctuations on the beam dynamics, the electromagnetic wave radiation, the generation of Langmuir wave turbulence, the waves’ coupling and decay phenomena involving Langmuir and low frequency waves, the acceleration of beam electrons, their diffusion mechanisms, the modulation of the Langmuir waveforms and the statistical properties of the radiated fields’ distributions. The paper presents the main results obtained in the form of a review.

2020 ◽  
Vol 500 (2) ◽  
pp. 2532-2542
Linda Blot ◽  
Pier-Stefano Corasaniti ◽  
Yann Rasera ◽  
Shankar Agarwal

ABSTRACT Future galaxy surveys will provide accurate measurements of the matter power spectrum across an unprecedented range of scales and redshifts. The analysis of these data will require one to accurately model the imprint of non-linearities of the matter density field. In particular, these induce a non-Gaussian contribution to the data covariance that needs to be properly taken into account to realize unbiased cosmological parameter inference analyses. Here, we study the cosmological dependence of the matter power spectrum covariance using a dedicated suite of N-body simulations, the Dark Energy Universe Simulation–Parallel Universe Runs (DEUS-PUR) Cosmo. These consist of 512 realizations for 10 different cosmologies where we vary the matter density Ωm, the amplitude of density fluctuations σ8, the reduced Hubble parameter h, and a constant dark energy equation of state w by approximately $10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. We use these data to evaluate the first and second derivatives of the power spectrum covariance with respect to a fiducial Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. We find that the variations can be as large as $150{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ depending on the scale, redshift, and model parameter considered. By performing a Fisher matrix analysis we explore the impact of different choices in modelling the cosmological dependence of the covariance. Our results suggest that fixing the covariance to a fiducial cosmology can significantly affect the recovered parameter errors and that modelling the cosmological dependence of the variance while keeping the correlation coefficient fixed can alleviate the impact of this effect.

1998 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 671-673
G. Alecian

We present a brief review about recent progresses concerning the study of diffusion processes in CP stars. The most spectacular of them concerns the calculation of radiative accelerations in stellar envelopes for which an accuracy better than 30% can now be reached for a large number of ions. This improvement is mainly due to huge and accurate atomic and opacity data bases available since the beginning of the 90’s. Developments of efficient computational methods have been carried out to take advantage of these new data. These progresses have, in turn, led to a better understanding of how the element stratification is building up with time. A computation of self-consistent stellar evolution models, including time-dependent diffusion, can now be within the scope of the next few years. However, the progresses previously mentioned do not apply for stellar atmospheres and upper layers of envelopes.

1991 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. 116-128 ◽  
Harvey A. Rose ◽  
D.F. DuBois ◽  
David Russell ◽  
B. Bezzerides

Yan Wang

In modeling and simulation, model-form uncertainty arises from the lack of knowledge and simplification during modeling process and numerical treatment for ease of computation. Traditional uncertainty quantification approaches are based on assumptions of stochasticity in real, reciprocal, or functional spaces to make them computationally tractable. This makes the prediction of important quantities of interest such as rare events difficult. In this paper, a new approach to capture model-form uncertainty is proposed. It is based on fractional calculus, and its flexibility allows us to model a family of non-Gaussian processes, which provides a more generic description of the physical world. A generalized fractional Fokker-Planck equation (fFPE) is proposed to describe the drift-diffusion processes under long-range correlations and memory effects. A new model calibration approach based on the maximum accumulative mutual information is also proposed to reduce model-form uncertainty, where an optimization procedure is taken.

2021 ◽  
Jorge Luis Chau ◽  
Raffaele Marino ◽  
Fabio Feraco ◽  
Juan M. Urco ◽  
Gerd Baumgarten ◽  

<p>The polar summer mesosphere is the Earth’s coldest region, allowing the formation of mesospheric ice clouds, potentially linked to climate change. These clouds produce strong radar echoes that are used as tracers of mesospheric dynamics. Here we report the first observations of extreme vertical drafts in the mesosphere, characterized by velocities larger than 40 m/s, i.e., more than five standard deviations larger than the observed wind variability. The morphology seems to resemble mesospheric bores, however the scales observed are much larger. Powerful vertical drafts, intermittent in space and time, emerge also in direct numerical simulations of stratified flows, predicting non-Gaussian statistics of vertical velocities. This evidence suggests that mesospheric bores might result from the interplay of gravity waves and turbulent motions. Our extreme event is interpreted as a mesospheric "super-bore", impacting mesospheric mixing and ice-formation, and would potentially impact planning of sub-orbital flights, and the investigation of biological material in the near space.</p>

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