constant frequency
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YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 206-219
M Devika ◽  
L Pavithra ◽  

The wind energy is one of the low qualities because of change in direction and velocity of wind. So, the input power and the frequency will be varied which affects the operation of system. For a prescribed wind velocity, the mechanical power available from the wind turbine is function of shaft speed. The shaft speed is varying due to the change in the wind velocity; thereby change in frequency and voltage is developed at the output of the induction generator. Power electronics converters are used for stabilizing the varying parameters and to obtain a constant frequency of 50Hz. commonly used power electronic device is back-to-back converters or ACDC-AC converters which has many disadvantages like costly, bulky. Through matrix converter, the terminal voltage and frequency of the induction generator can be controlled in such a way that the wind turbine will be operating at a constant frequency of 50 Hertz.

Diana Schoeppler ◽  
Annette Denzinger ◽  
Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

Doppler shift (DS) compensating bats adjust in flight the second harmonic of the constant-frequency component (CF2) of their echolocation signals so that the frequency of the Doppler shifted echoes returning from ahead is kept constant with high precision (0.1-0.2%) at the so-called reference frequency (fref). This feedback adjustment is mediated by an audio-vocal control system which correlates with a maximal activation of the foveal resonance area in the cochlea. Stationary bats adjust the average CF2 with similar precision at the resting frequency (frest), which is slightly below the fref. Over a variety of time periods (from minutes up to years) variations of the coupled fref and frest have been observed, and were attributed to age, social influences and behavioural situations in rhinolophids and hipposiderids, and to body temperature effects and flight activity in Pteronotus parnellii. We assume that, for all DS compensating bats, a change in body temperature has a strong effect on the activation state of the foveal resonance area in the cochlea which leads to a concomitant change in emission frequency. We tested our hypothesis in a hipposiderid bat, Hipposideros armiger, and measured how the circadian variation of body temperature at activation phases affected frest. With a miniature temperature logger, we recorded the skin temperature on the back of the bats simultaneously with echolocation signals produced. During warm-up from torpor strong temperature increases were accompanied by an increase in frest, of up to 1.44 kHz. We discuss the implications of our results for the organization and function of the audio-vocal control systems of all DS compensating bats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012069
Sidhartha Kumar Samal ◽  
Smrutisikha Jena ◽  
Bibhu Prasad Ganthia ◽  
S. Kaliappan ◽  
M. Sudhakar ◽  

Abstract A sensorless speed control method for doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) operating with constant frequency but in variable speed mode is presented in this project work. The control method is based on rotor speed estimation technique by a reactive power model reference adaptive system (MRAS) observer. The presented technique does not depend on any kind of flux evaluation and also independent to the resistance variation of either stator or rotor. The MRAS observer has a capacity for speed catching operation. PI controller is designed and also optimized using algorithm for better dynamic behaviour of the machine. MATLAB Simulink model and the simulation results are shown to check the effectiveness of the observer and also of the controller.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 03060
Hong Cui ◽  
Youqing Gao

A large number of harmonics will be generated in the process of transforming high frequency and high voltage alternating current (AC) into a constant frequency and constant voltage through a power conversion system when the high-speed motor is used as a generator. The phase-shifting reactor is used to eliminate harmonics for high-speed generator power conversion systems, and LCL filter and adjustable inductance filter are used to eliminate harmonics for high-speed motor power supply system in this paper. The adjustable inductance filter can adjust the inductance value in time according to the change of the output frequency of the inverter. The results verify the effectiveness of the methods used, and provide a theoretical basis for the wide application of high-speed motor by simulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 20218414
Victoria E. Suprunchuk

Ultrasonic exposure can be used for depolymerization of brown algae polysaccharides. However, its effectiveness depends on several factors, including cavitation activity in the treatment medium. Therefore, the purpose of the work was to determine the cavitation activity and the effectiveness of the ultrasonic exposure to fucoidan in order to optimize the processing processes of polysaccharide from brown algae. A change in cavitation activity was revealed depending on the composition of the processing environment, as well as on the intensity of ultrasonic exposure with a constant frequency of the ultrasonic wave. Similar dynamics of change of cavitation activity were established at the intensity of ultrasonic treatment of 100 and 133 W/cm2 with amplification of electric signal at the increase of ultrasound intensity. The use of SDS in the processing medium led to an increase in cavitation activity to 14.9±0.47 mV. Treatment of the fucoidan solution for 40 minutes under various conditions allowed to obtain fractions with a change in the average hydrodynamic particle diameter from 113 nm (100 W/cm2) to 85 nm (200 W/cm2) and 124 nm (SDS).

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 7922-7926
D. Bakria ◽  
M. Azzouzi ◽  
D. Gozim

The voltage controlled buck converter by constant-frequency pulse-width modulation in continuous conduction mode gives rise to a variety of nonlinear behaviors depending on the circuit parameters values, which complicate their analysis and control. In this paper, a description of the DC/DC buck converter and an overview of some of its chaotic dynamics is presented. A solution based on the optimized PID controller is suggested to eliminate the observed nonlinear phenomena and to enhance the dynamics of the converter. The parameters of the controller are optimized with the Spotted Hyena Optimizer (SHO) which uses the sum of the error between the reference voltage and the output voltage as well as the error between the values of the inductor current in every switch opening instant to determine the fitness of each solution. The simulations results in MATLAB proved the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4329
Marek Pöschl ◽  
Shibulal Gopi Sathi ◽  
Radek Stoček

The rheometer curing curves of 50/50 blends of natural rubber (NR) and two different halogenated rubbers with a combination of conventional accelerated sulfur (CV) and 3 phr of a bismaleimide (MF3) at 170 °C indicates that a co-curing reaction has been taken place between NR and the halogenated rubbers via Diels–Alder reaction. To further confirm whether the co-curing reaction has taken place in the early stage of curing, a complex test methodology was applied with the help of a rubber process analyzer. In this test, the blends with CV and with CVMF3 were subjected to cure at 170 °C for a predetermined time so that both the CV and CVMF3 cured blends will have the same magnitude of curing torque. It is then cooled down to 40 °C and the storage modulus (G′) was evaluated as a function of strain from 0.5% to 100% at a constant frequency of 1 Hz. The results reveal that the blends cured with CVMF3 exhibit a higher G′ due to the enhanced network strength because of the formation of bismaleimide crosslinks than the same cured with only the CV system. The swelling resistance and the mechanical properties of the blends cured with CVMF3 were significantly higher than those cured with only the CV system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Hadas Israeli-Mendlovic ◽  
Joseph Mendlovic ◽  
Luba Zuk ◽  
Michal Katz-Leurer

Abstract Objectives The current study aims to assess different high-frequency (HF) band power calculations based on different frequency bandwidth values, and compare them with the time domain the root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) value in preterm infants. Methods At week 32, electrocardiogram (ECG) and breathing rate (BR) were recorded for 24 h on 30 preterm infants born between 28 and 32 weeks. The recording held in the neonatal intensive care unit without any interruption of routine. Results The median 24 h BR was 40–78 breaths per minute. The RMSSD was highly and positively correlated with frequency bands that were based on each preterms BR range, or on a constant frequency with band limits of 0.4–2 Hz. Conclusions At week 32, HF band Hz limits should be calculated based on each child’s breathing rate, generally between 0.4 and 2 Hz.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (15) ◽  
Marija Glišić ◽  
Predrag Pejović

In this paper, constant-frequency peak-current control is analyzed focusing on the operation above the subharmonic threshold limit. The analysis is performed by mixing analytical and numerical approaches. Two levels of normalization are introduced: on the converter level and on the switching cell level, resulting in unified analysis regardless of the converter type. A function that maps the inductor current value at the beginning of a switching period to its value at the end of the switching period is derived. The analysis is performed by iterating this mapping, leading to information of the inductor current periodicity and the switching cell averaged output current. It is shown that before reaching chaotic state a converter passes through a sequence of bifurcations involving discontinuous conduction modes characterized by higher order periodicity. Boundaries of the region where the higher order discontinuous conduction modes occur are derived. Obtained dependence of the switching cell output current average on the operating parameters is used to derive a small signal model. The model parameters expose huge variations in the areas of deep subharmonic operation. The results are experimentally verified.

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