Gravity Waves
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ajeet K. Maurya ◽  
Navin Parihar ◽  
Adarsh Dube ◽  
Rajesh Singh ◽  
Sushil Kumar ◽  
...  

AbstractWe report rare simultaneous observations of columniform sprites and associated gravity waves (GWs) using the Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) camera and All-sky imager at Prayagraj (25.5° N, 81.9° E, geomag. lat. ~ 16.5° N), India. On 30 May 2014, a Mesoscale Convective System generated a group of sprites over the north horizon that reached the upper mesosphere. Just before this event, GWs (period ~ 14 min) were seen in OH broadband airglow (emission peak ~ 87 km) imaging that propagated in the direction of the sprite occurrence and dissipated in the background atmosphere thereby generating turbulence. About 9–14 min after the sprite event, another set of GWs (period ~ 11 min) was observed in OH imaging that arrived from the direction of the TLEs. At this site, we also record Very Low Frequency navigational transmitter signal JJI (22.2 kHz) from Japan. The amplitude of the JJI signal showed the presence of GWs with ~ 12.2 min periodicities and ~ 18 min period. The GWs of similar features were observed in the ionospheric Total Electron Content variations recorded at a nearby GPS site. The results presented here are important to understand the physical coupling of the troposphere with the lower and upper ionosphere through GWs.


Author(s):  
Min‐Yang Chou ◽  
Jia Yue ◽  
Charles C. H. Lin ◽  
P. K. Rajesh ◽  
N. M. Pedatella
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Dmitry S. Shaposhnikov ◽  
Alexander S. Medvedev ◽  
Alexander V. Rodin ◽  
Erdal Yiğit ◽  
Paul Hartogh

2022 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhou Zhang ◽  
Yulin Pan

In this paper, we numerically study the wave turbulence of surface gravity waves in the framework of Euler equations of the free surface. The purpose is to understand the variation of the scaling of the spectra with wavenumber $k$ and energy flux $P$ at different nonlinearity levels under different forcing/free-decay conditions. For all conditions (free decay and narrow-band and broad-band forcing) that we consider, we find that the spectral forms approach the wave turbulence theory (WTT) solution $S_\eta \sim k^{-5/2}$ and $S_\eta \sim P^{1/3}$ at high nonlinearity levels. With a decrease of nonlinearity level, the spectra for all cases become steeper, with the narrow-band forcing case exhibiting the most rapid deviation from WTT. We investigate bound waves and the finite-size effect as possible mechanisms causing the spectral variations. Through a tri-coherence analysis, we find that the finite-size effect is present in all cases, which is responsible for the overall steepening of the spectra and the reduced capacity of energy flux at lower nonlinearity levels. The fraction of bound waves in the domain generally decreases with the decrease of nonlinearity level, except for the narrow-band case, which exhibits a transition at a critical nonlinearity level below which a rapid increase is observed. This increase serves as the main reason for the fastest deviation from WTT with the decrease of nonlinearity in the narrow-band forcing case.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Axel Gabriel

Abstract. The increase in amplitudes of upward propagating gravity waves (GWs) with height due to decreasing density is usually described by exponential growth; however, recent measurements detected a much stronger increase in gravity wave potential energy density (GWPED) during daylight than night-time (increase by a factor of about 4 to 8 between middle stratosphere and upper mesosphere), which is not well understood up to now. This paper suggests that ozone-gravity wave interaction in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere is largely responsible for this phenomenon. The coupling between ozone-photochemistry and temperature is particularly strong in the upper stratosphere where the time-mean ozone mixing ratio is decreasing with height; therefore, an initial uplift of an air parcel must lead to a local increase in ozone and in the heating rate compared to the environment, and, hence, to an amplification of the initial uplift. Standard solutions of upward propagating GWs with linear ozone-temperature coupling are formulated suggesting local amplitude amplifications during daylight of 5 to 15 % for low-frequency GWs (periods ≥4 hours), as a function of the intrinsic frequency which decreases if ozone-temperature coupling is included. Subsequently, for horizontal wavelengths larger than 500 km and vertical wavelengths smaller than 5 km, the cumulative amplification during the upward level-by-level propagation leads to much stronger amplitudes in the GW perturbations (factor of about 1.5 to 3) and in the GWPED (factor of about 3 to 9) at upper mesospheric altitudes. The results open a new viewpoint for improving general circulation models with resolved or parameterized GWs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 63 ◽  
pp. 377-419
Author(s):  
Larry K. Forbes ◽  
Stephen J. Walters ◽  
Graeme C. Hocking

A classical problem in free-surface hydrodynamics concerns flow in a channel, when an obstacle is placed on the bottom. Steady-state flows exist and may adopt one of three possible configurations, depending on the fluid speed and the obstacle height; perhaps the best known has an apparently uniform flow upstream of the obstacle, followed by a semiinfinite train of downstream gravity waves. When time-dependent behaviour is taken into account, it is found that conditions upstream of the obstacle are more complicated, however, and can include a train of upstream-advancing solitons. This paper gives a critical overview of these concepts, and also presents a new semianalytical spectral method for the numerical description of unsteady behaviour. doi:10.1017/S1446181121000341


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Soumyajyoti Jana ◽  
Gargi Rakshit ◽  
Animesh Maitra

Abstract The elevated layer of heat-absorbing pollutant aerosols causes temperature perturbations in the pre-monsoon period above the boundary layer height (1.6-4 km) as observed over a polluted tropical urban location Kolkata (22°34' N, 88°22' E) during 2007-2016. Satellite observations of different types of aerosols show an increase in aerosol extinction coefficient around 1.6-4 km altitude, enhancing the perturbations in both temperature and wind profiles at that height. The opposing air mass movement within and above the boundary layer, which is strengthened by elevated heat-absorbing aerosols, is illustrated by height profiles of atmospheric vorticity and divergence. This results in higher Brunt-Vaisala frequencies indicating increased atmospheric oscillations. Consequently, atmospheric gravity waves, which manifest the temperature and wind profile perturbations, have enhanced energy in the upper troposphere (6-10 km). Based on multi- technique observations consisting of radiosonde, space-borne lidar and model data, this study reveals the interactions between aerosol and other atmospheric processes such as temperature variations and wind perturbations, which affect the atmospheric instability and increase gravity wave activities during the pre-monsoon period over a tropical metropolis.


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