scholarly journals Online child sexual exploitation material: A comparison from police data on men charged with child sexual exploitation material exclusively and men charged with contact child sexual abuse exclusively

Samuel J. Nicol ◽  
Danielle A. Harris ◽  
Mark R. Kebbell ◽  
James Ogilvie

We do not know whether men who access Child Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) are contact child-sex offenders using technology - or a new and different type of child sex offender. This study compares men who were charged with Contact Child Sexual Abuse (CCSA) (n = 95) exclusively, and men who were charged with offences involving online CSEM (n = 99) exclusively. This is the first study of its kind in Australia, the first to divide participants into mutually exclusive offending type groups and to do this using police data. Logistic regression results indicated that CSEM offenders were significantly more likely to be older, more likely to be employed, have fewer criminal charges and supervision violations compared to CCSA offenders. The findings further highlighted the heterogeneity of those charged with child sexual offences based on offence typology. The identification of demographic, lifestyle and interpersonal characteristic differences between online CSEM and CCSA offenders’ questions the use of uniform approaches to community supervision and treatment protocols. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of an increased volume of people charged with CSEM offences.

2019 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-66 ◽  
Klaus M. Beier

Paedophilia—a sexual preference for the body scheme of pre-pubescent children—is defined as a disorder within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization as well as within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. Contrary to popular belief, not all sex offenders who target children are paedophiles, and not all paedophiles commit sexual offences. But quite obviously paedophilia is an emotionally charged and controversial topic, which might be an explanation for putting it out of focus within the healthcare system. Mental health professionals are mainly (and worldwide) not well trained in terms of assessment methods and intervention techniques available to develop and implement effective policies and practices. This presents an obstacle for prevention, in that proactive strategies to protect children from child sexual abuse and sexual exploitation by online offences, such as the consumption or distribution of child abusive images (so-called child pornography), which emphasises the internationally relevant dimension of the issue. The article will address key concerns and questions in dealing with this clinically relevant population, offer insights into a primary prevention approach developed in Germany, and discuss the situation on a European level.

Asha Bajpai

Child sexual abuse and exploitation covers the sexual maltreatment of both children and young people. Part A deals with child sexual abuse (CSA) in India, its magnitude, and child sexual abuse in institutions. It deals with the national legal regime relating to CSA including the constitutional provisions, Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 and Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (POCSO). Law reform relating to some provisions in POCSO, child marriage laws, Right to Education Act and, and child victims and witnesses is recommended. Part B deals with commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of minor children in the context of organized exploitation for commercial gain. The Indian laws dealing with commercial sexual exploitation and pornography are included. Important judgements and international instruments dealing with child sexual abuse and exploitation and the important role played by NGOs and government in dealing with cases of CSA and exploitation are included.

Virginia Soldino ◽  
Hannah L. Merdian ◽  
Ross M. Bartels ◽  
Hannah K. Bradshaw

Offense-supportive cognitions are thought to result from underlying implicit theories (ITs). As child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) users are a distinct type of sex offender, Bartels and Merdian proposed that CSEM offenders hold five different ITs from those endorsed by contact sex offenders (i.e., Unhappy World, Self as Uncontrollable, Child as Sexual Object, Nature of Harm [CSEM variant], and Self as Collector), linked by an assumption about the Reinforcing Nature of the Internet. This article reports a conceptual content analysis of 23 interviews conducted with CSEM offenders in the United Kingdom and Spain. Support for all CSEM-specific ITs was found across both samples, providing an empirical validation of this conceptualization. Finally, four ITs originally identified for contact sex offenders were also identified, namely, Uncontrollability, Child as Sexual Being, Dangerous World, and Nature of Harm. Further validation of CSEM-related ITs is encouraged.

2019 ◽  
Vol 83 (5) ◽  
pp. 370-380
Raymond Arthur ◽  
Lisa Down

Recently the United Kingdom has been beset by a moral panic concerning gangs grooming girls for sexual exploitation. This moral panic derived from a number of well-publicised cases, the most infamous of which took place in Rochdale, Greater Manchester. Grooming children has been criminalised by section 15 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Adult groomers face up to two years in prison and being automatically placed on the sex offenders register. The Act is intended to protect children from abuse and exploitation. However child victims who have been abused by gangs and coerced into offending may still be liable for prosecution for any offending they have engaged in. Fear of being prosecuted may stop victims coming forward and prevent survivors from moving on with their lives. Such children are often perceived as having made a choice and criminalised. The Modern Slavery Act 2015 was designed to combat modern slavery. Recognising child sexual exploitation as a form of slavery, could lead to victims being protected rather than criminalised themselves for these offences. This article will examine how the law can be reformulated to ensure protection of children from sexual exploitation and also ensuring children are not charged for committing crimes whilst being groomed or coerced. The article will consider the limitation of the statutory defence available under section 45 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015.

Sexual Abuse ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 230-253 ◽  
Hannah L. Merdian ◽  
Nima Moghaddam ◽  
Douglas P. Boer ◽  
Nick Wilson ◽  
Jo Thakker ◽  

Since the advent of the Internet, convictions for the possession, display, trading, and distribution of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) have risen steadily, but little is known about their appropriate assessment and treatment, especially concerning their risk of reoffending. It has been suggested that a conceptual distinction of fantasy- versus contact-driven CSEM users might be of merit. Sixty-eight offenders recruited from sex offender treatment providers were assessed via an anonymous computer survey including a variety of clinical and risk-related variables; the findings showed differences in the psychological profiles between CSEM users and contact child sex offenders. Numerical and spatial methods of data analysis were used to identify subgroups of CSEM users; these confirmed the twofold distinction of fantasy- versus contact-driven offending. The spatial representation of participants identified three dimensions as crucial in the classification of these subgroups: direct sexual contact with a minor, possession of fantasy-generating material, and social contact with other users with a sexual interest in minors; potentially differentiating distinct offender subgroups with different risks and needs. The current study informed the development of an empirical model of CSEM users that could aid in the assessment of risk of reoffending and cross-over to contact sex offending.

Sophie Hallett

An overview of what we understand by child sexual exploitation and how it differs from child sexual abuse. The structure and content of the book are defined as well as the research participants and their involvement. Ethics and reflexivity are also discussed.

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-59
Rika Dewi Auliani Usman ◽  
Nurul Husna

Abstract. Sexual crimes occur not only in urban areas but also in villages. This crime has a big impact especially the majority of victims are children. LRSAMPK Darussa’adah is an institution whose role is to provide services for victims. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of cases of child sexual violence, the strategies carried out by the assistants in terminating and barriers, challenges and support in terminating. This is a field research with a qualitative approach. Data collection techniques are observation, interviews and documentation, then the research results are analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the types of child sexual abuse cases handled by LRSAMPK Darussa’adah were rape, sexual harassment, sexual exploitation, neglect of the baby, sexual abuse and abduction for sexual purposes. The accompanying strategy in terminating child sexual abuse cases is to convince the victims’ families and communities by involving referrals, “geuchik”, social workers and related agencies. The challenges of Darussa’adah social workers are when client stakeholders are difficult to ask for information about victims and there are some people who refuse and some accept victims. The support received by Darussa’adah social workers is when the referrals are willing to work together to find ways to facilitate the termination of victims, and also families and there are still people who are willing to accept among the majority of people who refuse victims returning,  Abstrak. Kejahatan seksual marak terjadi tidak hanya di perkotaan tetapi meluas ke perkampungan. Kejahatan ini berdampak besar khususnya sebagian besar korbannya adalah anak-anak. LRSAMPK Darussa’adah merupakan lembaga yang berperan memberi pelayanan bagi korban. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui jenis kasus kekerasan seksual anak, strategi yang dilakukan oleh pendamping dalam melakukan terminasi dan hambatan, tantangan maupun dukungan dalam melakukan terminasi. Ini adalah penelitian lapangan (field research) dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi, selanjutnya hasil penelitian dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis kasus kekerasan seksual anak yang ditangani LRSAMPK Darussa’adah adalah perkosaan, pelecehan seksual, eksploitasi seksual, penelantaran bayi, pencabulan perdagangan dan penculikan untuk tujuan seksual.  Strategi pendamping dalam melakukan terminasi pada kasus kekerasan seksual anak adalah dengan meyakinkan keluarga korban maupun masyarakat dengan melibatkan perujuk, geuchik, pekerja sosial dan dinas terkait. Hambatan dan tantangan pekerja sosial Darussa’adah adalah ketika stakeholder klien sulit dimintai keterangan mengenai korban dan ada sebagian masyarakat yang menolak dan sebagian menerima korban. Adapun dukungan yang diterima pekerja sosial Darussa’adah adalah ketika perujuk bersedia kerjasama mencari cara agar mempermudah terminasi korban, dan juga keluarga serta masih ada masyarakat yang mau menerima di tengah-tengah sebagian besar masyarakat yang menolak korban kembali.  

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