child sexual abuse
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2022 ◽  
Samantha Bouchard ◽  
Rachel Langevin ◽  
Francis Vergunst ◽  
Melissa Commisso ◽  
Pascale Domond ◽  

Importance: Individuals who have been sexually abused are at a greater risk for poor health, but associations with economic outcomes in mid-life have been overlooked. Objectives: We investigated associations between child sexual abuse (≤18 years) and economic outcomes at 33-37 years, while considering type of report (official/retrospective) and characteristics of abuse (type, severity, and chronicity). Design: This cohort study used data collected for the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Setting: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is a population-based sample. Participants: Participants were 3,020 boys and girls attending kindergarten in the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1986/88 and followed up until 2017. Main outcome/Measures: Child sexual abuse (0-18 years old) was assessed using both retrospective self-report questionnaires and objective reports (notification to Child Protection Services). Information on employment earnings was obtained from government tax return records. Tobit regressions were used to test associations of sexual abuse with earnings adjusting for sex and family socioeconomic background. Results: Of the 3,020 participants 1,320 [43.7%] self-reported no sexual abuse, 1,340 [44.3%] had no official report but were missing on the retrospective questionnaire, 340 [11.3%] reported retrospective sexual abuse, and 20 [0.7%] had official report. In the fully adjusted model, individuals who retrospectively reported being sexually abused earned US$4,031 (CI=-7,134 to -931) less per year at age 33-37 years, while those with official reports earned US$16,042 (CI=-27,465 to -4,618) less, compared to participants who were not abused. Among individuals with retrospectively reported abuse, those who experienced intra-familial abuse earned US$4,696 (CI=-9,316 to -75) less than individuals who experienced extra-familial abuse, while participants who experienced penetration earned US$6,188 (CI=-12,248 to -129) less than those who experienced non-contact abuse. Conclusion and Relevance: Child sexual abuse puts individuals at risk for lasting reductions in employment earnings in adulthood. Early identification and support for sexual abuse victims could help reduce the economic gap and improve long-term outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 605 (10) ◽  
pp. 41-52
Joanna Płonka

In times of easily accessible technology and the Internet, the number of technology-assisted child sexual abuse (TA-CSA) is increasing. Anonymity, the multitude of victims that can be reached at the same time, as well as the variety of online abuse forms are in some way conducive to the perpetrators of sexual crimes in undertaking the act. Nevertheless, specialists in the field indicate that the phenomenon itself, as well as its consequences are not fully investigated. The aim of this article is to introduce the reader to the issues of TA-CSA by: 1) to present what the phenomenon of child sexual abuse is and what notions it entails, 2) to identify different types and forms of online sexual abuse (cyber grooming, sexting, sextortion and web-cam sexting), and 3) to take a close look at several selected research studies in the field, examining the consequences of technology-assisted sexual abuse on children. From previous reports of researchers investigating the causes and effects of child sexual abuse, including technology-assisted abuse, it can be concluded that the consequences of online abuse are very similar to those of offline sexual abuse, and even include additional factors that victims must face. Further research on this topic should therefore be looked at in order to better understand the nature of technology-assisted sexual abuse and not succumb to the illusion of this type of experience minor importance over the experience of offline sexual violence. Understanding the relevance and consequences of this phenomenon will allow for effective interventions in support services and educational activities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 336-340
Serbulent Kilic ◽  
Ayse Vural

Child sexual abuse is a public health problem worldwide. When a court carries out an investigation into cases of sexual abuse, they are likely to ask for a genital examination report from a forensic pathologist indicating whether they believe sexual abuse contact has occurred. Any suspicion about the sexual abuse of a child should be evaluated prudently. Nevertheless, the investigation of sexual abuse is sometimes undertaken according to misguided or unnecessary complaints from concerned parents suffering from mental illness.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052110629
Efrat Lusky-Weisrose ◽  
Marlene Kowalski ◽  
Dafna Tener ◽  
Carmit Katz

The current study is based on an in-depth thematic analysis of 20 interviews with German and Israeli adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) by religious authority figures (RAF). This paper aims to explore survivors’ experiences within the Jewish ultra-Orthodox and Christian communities, as well as to draw comparisons between the abusive structures and disclosure in these two contexts. The results point to the complexity of CSA by RAF, which is embedded in the survivors’ perceptions of themselves as emotionally and cognitively captured by the perpetrators who are a symbol of a parent or God and faith. The participants expressed great concern regarding disclosing the abuse against the backdrop of familial, cultural, and community inhibitors, such as fear of social stigmatization, inability to recognize the abuse, and the taboo of sexuality discourse. The survivors’ traumatic experiences were intensified in light of negative social responses to disclosure and encounters with insensitive officials. A comparison of the cultures revealed differences regarding the nature of community life and educational institutions, which may have shaped the disclosure and recognition of the abuse. The study highlights the importance of comparative follow-up studies related to this phenomenon in order to examine its universal and unique cultural contexts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2 (20)) ◽  
pp. 219-231
Krzysztof Biel

The aim of the article is to present the assumptions of the prevention of sexual violence against children in the school environment. Child sexual abuse has become a global problem that affects not only the family environment, but educational institutions as well. One example of such an institution is a school where, under the guise of upbringing, there may be numerous abuses committed by people who are an authority in the child’s life. School staff members are often unaware of institutional grooming and its perpetrators, which means that the entire institution may unknowingly contribute to promoting child sexual abuse. The author first presents the methods of grooming used by perpetrators, pointing to activities aimed at children and the mechanisms of institutional grooming that may create a specific culture that makes it difficult to protect children. The author then presents the standards and strategies for prevention in schools, paying attention to the need to involve the entire community: conducting proper recruitment and training of employees and constructing preventive programs adapted to the age and development of children and their proper implementation.

Susan Alexa Pusch ◽  
Thomas Ross ◽  
María Isabel Fontao

The aim of this study was to identify family characteristics and dynamics relevant to the initiation and maintenance of intrafamilial child sexual abuse. An understanding of essential characteristics of the affected families could help to prevent such crimes. In order to provide an overview of the current state of research, a literature review based on the PRISMA criteria was conducted. For the research in the databases PsycInfo and PSYNDEX, predetermined criteria and search terms were used. Fifteen relevant articles from 1991 to 2020 were identified. The studies examined perpetrator-victim relationships, the role of the mother, the relationship between the parents and characteristics of the families in which child sexual abuse took place. Relevant core characteristics of incestuous families are dysfunctional, violent, and conflictual relationships between the parents, and between parents and children. However, these factors are often not specific to intrafamilial abuse. Only six articles published after 2000 were identified. Little evidence for each individual construct was found, so the effects should not be overestimated. Further research on intrafamilial child sexual abuse is necessary.

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