sexual abuse
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2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 105488
Author(s):  
Caitlin Rancher ◽  
Daniel W. Smith ◽  
Rosaura Orengo-Aguayo ◽  
Mindy Jackson ◽  
Ernest N. Jouriles

Author(s):  
Denna Pourmonazah Jalili

For many years, sexual abuse of young athletes quietly festered throughout amateur sport organizations in Canada and the United States. However, the veil has recently been lifted by the highly publicized testimonies of athletes sexually abused as minors by disgraced former USA Gymnastics (“USAG”) physician and Michigan State University professor Larry Nassar. The troubling details of these stories spurred investigations seeking to identify the causes behind the institutional failures to intervene in Nassar’s perpetration of abuse. The evidence gathered by these investigations alongside independent academic research reveal that unfettered predatory behaviour is a pervasive issue across the institutions responsible for overseeing the American Olympic movement and amateur sports. In addition, similar patterns of unchecked abuse have since been identified as plaguing Canadian Olympic and amateur sport organizations. This paper examines the institutional failures to address child sexual abuse occurring under the oversight of Olympic and amateur sport organizations in Canada and the United States. In both countries, efforts are currently underway to reform governance of these institutions to better protect minors participating in amateur sports. Accordingly, this paper also analyzes the policies implemented thus far and makes substantive recommendations on ideal federal level initiatives.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yikang Zhang ◽  
Aleksandr Segal ◽  
Francesco Pompedda ◽  
Shumpei Haginoya ◽  
Pekka Santtila

PurposeResearch has shown that confirmation bias plays a role in legal and forensic decision-making processes. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined how it manifests itself when interviewing an allegedly abused child. MethodIn the present study, we used data from a series of experiments in which participants interviewed child avatars to examine how an assumption of abuse based on preliminary information influenced decision-making and interviewing style. Interview training data from eight studies with students, psychologists and police officers were included in the analyses.ResultsWe found that interviewers’ preliminary assumption of sexual abuse having taken place predicted 1) a conclusion of abuse by the interviewers after the interview; 2) higher confidence in their judgment; 3) more frequent use of not recommended question types and 4) a decreased likelihood of reaching a correct conclusion given the same number of available relevant details. ConclusionThe importance of considering how preliminary assumptions of abuse affect interview behaviour and outcomes and the implications for the training of investigative interviewers were discussed.


Author(s):  
Rodica Weihmann

Adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse often experience symptoms derived from lived traumatic experiences, which are analogous to many of the criteria of diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) but also with those of stress disorder post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We will briefly examine these symptoms in the context of a framework trauma, to conclude later whether symptomatic behaviors may be indicative more accurate for a post-traumatic response, especially in terms of behavior reconstitution or re-experience of trauma. Recognition of self-harm behavior or masochistic tendencies in adult survivors of sexual abuse trauma as an attempt to reconstitution of sexual trauma suffered in childhood, rather than as a manifestation characteristic of personality disorders, serves to establish an appropriate diagnosis, mental health professionals can continue to focus on the consequences of trauma unresolved sexual issues rather than personality restructuring. (Standardized intervention model SON, Delcea C ., 2019) Thus, seek to We understand clients in a trauma setting can provide a more objective treatment climate and can minimize the stigma that may result potentially from making an inappropriate diagnosis borderline personality disorder (BPD).


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhang Rong ◽  
Zhang Wen ◽  
Liao Maoxu ◽  
Liu Ya ◽  
Fan Song ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In recent years, the number of adolescents engaging in premarital sex has increased, and an increasing number of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) cases have been reported in China. Many studies have indicated that CSA has a well-established association with risky sexual activities. However, only a limited number of studies have explored possible reasons for this association among middle school students, a population that may engage in premarital sex, which is critical for the development of interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior. Based on random samples of middle school students from a Chinese city, this article investigated the relationship between CSA and students’ premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted between 2016 and 2017 in Luzhou, China, 2292 middle school and high school students aged 12–18 years were recruited by multistage random sampling. All students were administered anonymous questionnaires. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between CSA and PSP. Results The prevalence of CSA was 15.4% (354/2292; 95% CI: 14–16.9%). A higher percentage of male respondents (18.2%) than female respondents (12.9%) had experienced CSA. A positive association between CSA and PSP was found among students. Respondents who had suffered CSA exhibited greater PSP, and this relationship was observed in the male sample, female sample and the total student sample in Luzhou (β = − 3.76, P < 0.05; β = − 2.79, P < 0.05; and β = − 2.84, P < 0.05, respectively). Respondents who had suffered CSA were also more likely to express a double standard about premarital sex (odds ratio [OR] =1.41, P < 0.05), especially among male students (odds ratio [OR] =1.63, P < 0.05). Conclusions Sex differences in CSA and the relationship between CSA and PSP were significant among this large sample of middle school students in Luzhou (China). The findings suggest that experiencing CSA may be closely related to youth attitudes toward premarital sex, especially among males. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the prevention of CSA and provide adolescent reproductive health programs to reduce the impact of CSA on sexual cognition and attitude, prevent premarital sex and promote positive attitudes toward sexual equality for middle school students.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Silje Støle Brokke ◽  
Thomas Bjerregaard Bertelsen ◽  
Nils Inge Landrø ◽  
Vegard Øksendal Haaland

Abstract Background Suicide attempt is the most predictive risk factor of suicide. Trauma – especially sexual abuse – is a risk factor for suicide attempt and suicide. A common reaction to sexual abuse is dissociation. Higher levels of dissociation are linked to self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt, but the role of dissociation in suicidal behavior is unclear. Methods In this naturalistic study, ninety-seven acute psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation, of whom 32 had experienced sexual abuse, were included. Suicidal behaviour was assessed with The Columbia suicide history form (CSHF). The Brief trauma questionnaire (BTQ) was used to identify sexual abuse. Dissociative symptoms were assessed with Dissociative experiences scale (DES). Results Patients who had experienced sexual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation and were younger at onset of suicidal thoughts, more likely to self-harm, and more likely to have attempted suicide; and they had made more suicide attempts. Mediation analysis found dissociative experiences to significantly mediate a substantive proportion of the relationship between sexual abuse and number of suicide attempts (indirect effects = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.28, proportion mediated = 68%). Dissociative experiences significantly mediated the role of sexual abuse as a predictor of being in the patient group with more than four suicide attempts (indirect effects = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.19, proportion mediated = 34%). Conclusion The results illustrate the importance of assessment and treatment of sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms such as dissociation in suicide prevention. Dissociation can be a contributing factor to why some people act on their suicidal thoughts.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samantha Bouchard ◽  
Rachel Langevin ◽  
Francis Vergunst ◽  
Melissa Commisso ◽  
Pascale Domond ◽  
...  

Importance: Individuals who have been sexually abused are at a greater risk for poor health, but associations with economic outcomes in mid-life have been overlooked. Objectives: We investigated associations between child sexual abuse (≤18 years) and economic outcomes at 33-37 years, while considering type of report (official/retrospective) and characteristics of abuse (type, severity, and chronicity). Design: This cohort study used data collected for the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Setting: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is a population-based sample. Participants: Participants were 3,020 boys and girls attending kindergarten in the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1986/88 and followed up until 2017. Main outcome/Measures: Child sexual abuse (0-18 years old) was assessed using both retrospective self-report questionnaires and objective reports (notification to Child Protection Services). Information on employment earnings was obtained from government tax return records. Tobit regressions were used to test associations of sexual abuse with earnings adjusting for sex and family socioeconomic background. Results: Of the 3,020 participants 1,320 [43.7%] self-reported no sexual abuse, 1,340 [44.3%] had no official report but were missing on the retrospective questionnaire, 340 [11.3%] reported retrospective sexual abuse, and 20 [0.7%] had official report. In the fully adjusted model, individuals who retrospectively reported being sexually abused earned US$4,031 (CI=-7,134 to -931) less per year at age 33-37 years, while those with official reports earned US$16,042 (CI=-27,465 to -4,618) less, compared to participants who were not abused. Among individuals with retrospectively reported abuse, those who experienced intra-familial abuse earned US$4,696 (CI=-9,316 to -75) less than individuals who experienced extra-familial abuse, while participants who experienced penetration earned US$6,188 (CI=-12,248 to -129) less than those who experienced non-contact abuse. Conclusion and Relevance: Child sexual abuse puts individuals at risk for lasting reductions in employment earnings in adulthood. Early identification and support for sexual abuse victims could help reduce the economic gap and improve long-term outcomes.


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