three dimensions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Adam Lindkvist ◽  
Yubin Zhang

Laboratory diffraction contrast tomography (LabDCT) is a recently developed technique to map crystallographic orientations of polycrystalline samples in three dimensions non-destructively using a laboratory X-ray source. In this work, a new theoretical procedure, named LabXRS, expanding LabDCT to include mapping of the deviatoric strain tensors on the grain scale, is proposed and validated using simulated data. For the validation, the geometries investigated include a typical near-field LabDCT setup utilizing Laue focusing with equal source-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances of 14 mm, a magnified setup where the sample-to-detector distance is increased to 200 mm, a far-field Laue focusing setup where the source-to-sample distance is also increased to 200 mm, and a near-field setup with a source-to-sample distance of 200 mm. The strain resolution is found to be in the range of 1–5 × 10−4, depending on the geometry of the experiment. The effects of other experimental parameters, including pixel binning, number of projections and imaging noise, as well as microstructural parameters, including grain position, grain size and grain orientation, on the strain resolution are examined. The dependencies of these parameters, as well as the implications for practical experiments, are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Yingzhe Lyu ◽  
Gopi Krishnan Rajbahadur ◽  
Dayi Lin ◽  
Boyuan Chen ◽  
Zhen Ming (Jack) Jiang

Artificial Intelligence for IT Operations (AIOps) has been adopted in organizations in various tasks, including interpreting models to identify indicators of service failures. To avoid misleading practitioners, AIOps model interpretations should be consistent (i.e., different AIOps models on the same task agree with one another on feature importance). However, many AIOps studies violate established practices in the machine learning community when deriving interpretations, such as interpreting models with suboptimal performance, though the impact of such violations on the interpretation consistency has not been studied. In this article, we investigate the consistency of AIOps model interpretation along three dimensions: internal consistency, external consistency, and time consistency. We conduct a case study on two AIOps tasks: predicting Google cluster job failures and Backblaze hard drive failures. We find that the randomness from learners, hyperparameter tuning, and data sampling should be controlled to generate consistent interpretations. AIOps models with AUCs greater than 0.75 yield more consistent interpretation compared to low-performing models. Finally, AIOps models that are constructed with the Sliding Window or Full History approaches have the most consistent interpretation with the trends presented in the entire datasets. Our study provides valuable guidelines for practitioners to derive consistent AIOps model interpretation.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Doddahulugappa Goutam ◽  
Shirshendu Ganguli ◽  
B.V. Gopalakrishna

PurposeThis paper aims to explore impact of technology readiness (TR) on e-service quality (ESQ) and effect of ESQ and TR on purchase intention (PI) and behavioral loyalty (BL) in the context of online shopping.Design/methodology/approachWith the help of the existing literature, the authors propose a conceptual model. Questionnaire was designed to collect data, and analysis has been done using a final sample of 341 respondents.FindingsThe results show how TR has a significant impact on ESQ, PI and BL. Outcomes also highlight that only three dimensions of ESQ have a positive impact on both PI and BL. System availability dimension of ESQ impacts neither PI nor BL. Therefore, TR and ESQ together play a vital role as enablers in influencing BL and PI in online shopping context.Practical implicationsThe study results will serve as a guide to business-to-consumer e-commerce players and help them to determine how TR and ESQ dimensions will help them to build BL and PI for online shopping.Originality/valueThis is one of the first studies that takes into consideration both TR and ESQ and check how they impact PI and BL. Also, in the Indian context, it is an under-researched area and tries to fulfill this gap.

Uzoma Ebubechukwu Osita- Ejikeme ◽  
Continue Eketu

This study examined the nexus between Information systems flexibility and Robustness of manufacturing firms in South-South, Nigeria. Nine objectives and hypotheses were postulated to examine the relationship between the dimensions (IT flexibility, Process flexibility and Data flexibility) and the measures (Persistence, Structural stability and Superposition). A structured questionnaire was prepared, while Google forms was used to gather the data from the 210 respondents. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with the aid of Smart PLS 3.3.3, was used to examine the relationship between the dimensions of Information systems flexibility and the measures of Robustness. A total of 185 responses were collected and used for the analysis. The results show that all three dimensions of Information systems flexibility improved Robustness. The study recommends amongst others, that Management of manufacturing firms should adopt flexible information systems through strengthening of networks, relationships with stakeholders and the emphasis on information technology. This will advance the organisations options and provide the firm with various advantages in terms of information access and knowledge sharing needed for their agility within the business environment.

شاهر يوسف ياغي

This study aimed to identify the extent iPad’s contributed to enhance inclusion of students with visual impairment (partially) in public schools. The study used the descriptive and analytical approach. The population consisted of (160) students who received iPad device within the “vision project” implemented at UNRWA schools in Gaza strip. The study used a questionnaire prepared and adapted by the researcher, to measure degree of iPad’s contribution to inclusion in general and at three dimensions: academic, psychological, and behavioral. Results showed the level of iPad’s contribution to enhance inclusion among students with visual impairment was high, with an average of 2.70 and a relative weight 90%. Concerning the three dimensions, results showed the academic attained as average of 2.77 with relative weight 88.6%, however in the second dimension (psychological) the mean was 2.98 with relative weight 99.3%, lastly for the third dimension (behavioral), the mean was 2.67 with relative weight 89.0%. This indicated high level of iPad’s contribution to enhance inclusion of students with visual impairment at public schools specifically at UNRWA schools. The study recommended use iPads for best inclusive practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 2022
Tapan Kumar Baishya ◽  
Bijit Bora ◽  
Pawan Chetri ◽  
Upashana Gogoi

Topological indices (TI) (descriptors) of a molecular graph are very much useful to study various physiochemical properties. It is also used to develop the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) of the corresponding chemical compound. Various techniques have been developed to calculate the TI of a graph. Recently a technique of calculating degree-based TI from M-polynomial has been introduced. We have evaluated various topological descriptors for 3-dimensional TiO2 crystals using M-polynomial. These descriptors are constructed such that it contains 3 variables (m, n and t) each corresponding to a particular direction. These 3 variables facilitate us to deeply understand the growth of TiO2 in 1 dimension (1D), 2 dimensions (2D), and 3 dimensions (3D) respectively. HIGHLIGHTS Calculated degree based Topological indices of a 3D crystal from M-polynomial A relation among various Topological indices is established geometrically Variations of Topological Indices along three dimensions (directions) are shown geometrically Harmonic index approximates the degree variation of oxygen atom

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 947
Kaoutar Jamai ◽  
Ali Abidar ◽  
Hans De Steur ◽  
Xavier Gellynck

As innovation has garnered substantial attention on corporate success and sustainability, organizations must evaluate internal contexts to determine potential innovative practices and benefits. Firms need to investigate the determining factors of innovation preparedness as organizational innovation practices are catalyzed through internal elements. This study evaluates small and medium firms’ readiness to adopt and execute collaborative innovative projects within a future cluster and its impacts on organizational advantages, intentions, and attributes. Thereby, three dimensions were considered in examining organizational preparedness, namely, climate, culture, and motivation. A total of 70 firms operating in the labeled agri-food sector in Morocco were interviewed and homogenously classified using integrated hierarchical and non-hierarchical algorithms, following a segmentation approach. Three segments were identified, stressing the degree of organizational readiness to undertake innovative projects within future service clusters. The segments varied according to the firm’s sub-sector, experience, and resources. Considering the association of readiness with benefits and practical aims, the results broaden firm preparedness understanding to adopt innovative projects. The results also illustrate the relevance of adapting both innovative and beneficial project arrangements for firms with minor to moderate experience while addressing current issues across different segments.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Yanbo Zhang ◽  
Guangyu Gao ◽  
Shaohong Yan ◽  
Xulong Yao ◽  
Xiangxin Liu ◽  

Meso-structure is an important factor affecting the characteristics of rock fracture. To determine the factors influencing the internal meso-structural characteristics upon the crack generation and extension, rock samples were tested under uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading and examined using computed tomography (CT) scanning. CT scanning was used to visualize and investigate the entire process of fracture source generation and its development in three dimensions, and finally the location information of the fracture source was determined. The mineral composition and structure along the fracture path inside the specimen were studied by using a polarizing microscope, and the evolution of fracture propagation around mineral particles was revealed based on its mineralogical characteristics. Results indicate that based on the fracture source around different rock meso-structure types, the initial fracture source can also be divided into different types, namely, the primary porosity type, the micro-crack type, and the mineral grain type. The strength characteristics of mineral grains can determine whether the crack extends around the gravel or through it. The hard grains at the crack-tip promote the transformation of tensile stress to shear stress, which lead to the change in the direction of crack extension and bifurcation. The spatial shape of the cracks after rock fracture is related to the initial distribution of minerals and is more complicated in areas where minerals are concentrated. The crack extension around gravel particles also generates a mode of failure, affecting large grains with gravel spalling from the matrix. The findings provide a study basis for identifying the potentially dangerous areas and provide early warning for the safety of underground engineering construction operations.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Zalana Ștefan Alexandru ◽  
Maria Dămășaru ◽  
Edgar Moraru ◽  
Ciprian Ion Rizescu ◽  
Simina Neagoe (Chelărescu) ◽  

Background. The arches used in orthodontic therapy are subject to increasing physical and chemical stresses. Purpose of the study: This in vitro experimental study aims to highlight and compare the main mechanical properties of orthodontic arches. Materials and Methods: We used 40 springs, 2 materials, 20 of Ni-Cr and 20 of Co-Cr, of different diameters, 0.7 mm 0.8 mm and 1.2 mm, subjected to the environment of artificial saliva and artificial saliva with cola for one month and two months, respectively. Five springs of each material were tested at different times: T0, before application in the oral cavity, then at time T1, T2, T3, T4. Three lengths of the lever arm were considered for bending forces acting on the springs (dental wires). These lengths were 15, 10 and 5 mm. The wires were tested under the action of bending forces on a Hans Schmidt HV 500N stand, obtaining the characteristics of the wires: deformation-force-time. Results: Graphical determinations show that the degree of deformation of the wires is influenced by the applied force, diameter and obviously by the immersion time, respectively by the type of solution in which the springs were immersed. Conclusions: The final degree of bending is higher for Co-Cr arcs than for Ni-Cr at all three dimensions.

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