Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Takeshi Shimizu ◽  
Hideji Murakoshi ◽  
Hidetoshi Matsumoto ◽  
Kota Ichino ◽  
Atsunori Hattori ◽  

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) form a myelin sheath around neuronal axons to increase conduction velocity of action potential. Although both large and small diameter axons are intermingled in the central nervous system (CNS), the number of myelin wrapping is related to the axon diameter, such that the ratio of the diameter of the axon to that of the entire myelinated-axon unit is optimal for each axon, which is required for exerting higher brain functions. This indicates there are unknown axon diameter-dependent factors that control myelination. We tried to investigate physical factors to clarify the mechanisms underlying axon diameter-dependent myelination. To visualize OL-generating forces during myelination, a tension sensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used. Polystyrene nanofibers with varying diameters similar to neuronal axons were prepared to investigate biophysical factors regulating the OL-axon interactions. We found that higher tension was generated at OL processes contacting larger diameter fibers compared with smaller diameter fibers. Additionally, OLs formed longer focal adhesions (FAs) on larger diameter axons and shorter FAs on smaller diameter axons. These results suggest that OLs respond to the fiber diameter and activate mechanotransduction initiated at FAs, which controls their cytoskeletal organization and myelin formation. This study leads to the novel and interesting idea that physical factors are involved in myelin formation in response to axon diameter.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 928
Jin-Ha Choi ◽  
Taehyeong Ha ◽  
Minkyu Shin ◽  
Sang-Nam Lee ◽  
Jeong-Woo Choi

Nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, have received prodigious attention as potential biomarkers for precise and early diagnosis of cancers. However, due to their small quantity and instability in body fluids, precise and sensitive detection is highly important. Taking advantage of the ease-to-functionality and plasmonic effect of nanomaterials, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)-based biosensors have been developed for accurate and sensitive quantitation of cancer-related nucleic acids. This review summarizes the recent strategies and advances in recently developed nanomaterial-based FRET and MEF for biosensors for the detection of nucleic acids in cancer diagnosis. Challenges and opportunities in this field are also discussed. We anticipate that the FRET and MEF-based biosensors discussed in this review will provide valuable information for the sensitive detection of nucleic acids and early diagnosis of cancers.

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