Energy Transfer
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2021 ◽  
Vol 121 ◽  
pp. 111415
Hao Lu ◽  
Qingsong Song ◽  
Xiaodong Xu ◽  
Peng Liu ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9945
Luisa Galla ◽  
Nicola Vajente ◽  
Diana Pendin ◽  
Paola Pizzo ◽  
Tullio Pozzan ◽  

Calcium (Ca2+) exerts a pivotal role in controlling both physiological and detrimental cellular processes. This versatility is due to the existence of a cell-specific molecular Ca2+ toolkit and its fine subcellular compartmentalization. Study of the role of Ca2+ in cellular physiopathology greatly benefits from tools capable of quantitatively measuring its dynamic concentration ([Ca2+]) simultaneously within organelles and in the cytosol to correlate localized and global [Ca2+] changes. To this aim, as nucleoplasm Ca2+ changes mirror those of the cytosol, we generated a novel nuclear-targeted version of a Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Ca2+ probe. In particular, we modified the previously described nuclear Ca2+ sensor, H2BD3cpv, by substituting the donor ECFP with mCerulean3, a brighter and more photostable fluorescent protein. The thorough characterization of this sensor in HeLa cells demonstrated that it significantly improved the brightness and photostability compared to the original probe, thus obtaining a probe suitable for more accurate quantitative Ca2+ measurements. The affinity for Ca2+ was determined in situ. Finally, we successfully applied the new probe to confirm that cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic Ca2+ levels were similar in both resting conditions and upon cell stimulation. Examples of simultaneous monitoring of Ca2+ signal dynamics in different subcellular compartments in the very same cells are also presented.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1825
Yue Zhang ◽  
Huijie Chen ◽  
Mengmeng Zou ◽  
Rick Oerlemans ◽  
Changhao Shao ◽  

The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an Alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) that causes high mortality in infected piglets, resulting in serious economic losses in the farming industry. Hypericin is a dianthrone compound that has been shown as an antiviral activity on several viruses. Here, we first evaluated the antiviral effect of hypericin in PEDV and found the viral replication and egression were significantly reduced with hypericin post-treatment. As hypericin has been shown in SARS-CoV-2 that it is bound to viral 3CLpro, we thus established a molecular docking between hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro using different software and found hypericin bound to 3CLpro through two pockets. These binding pockets were further verified by another docking between hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro pocket mutants, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay confirmed that hypericin inhibits the PEDV 3CLpro activity. Moreover, the alignments of α-CoV 3CLpro sequences or crystal structure revealed that the pockets mediating hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro binding were highly conserved, especially in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). We then validated the anti-TGEV effect of hypericin through viral replication and egression. Overall, our results push forward that hypericin was for the first time shown to have an inhibitory effect on PEDV and TGEV by targeting 3CLpro, and it deserves further attention as not only a pan-anti-α-CoV compound but potentially also as a compound of other coronaviral infections.

Nano Letters ◽  
2021 ◽  
Sufi O. Raja ◽  
Alexey I. Chizhik ◽  
Christoph F. Schmidt ◽  
Jörg Enderlein ◽  
Arindam Ghosh

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Taryn M. Kay ◽  
Cody P. Aplin ◽  
Rowan Simonet ◽  
Julie Beenken ◽  
Robert C. Miller ◽  

In this report, we have developed a simple approach using single-detector fluorescence autocorrelation spectroscopy (FCS) to investigate the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) of genetically encoded, freely diffusing crTC2.1 (mTurquoise2.1–linker–mCitrine) at the single molecule level. We hypothesize that the molecular brightness of the freely diffusing donor (mTurquoise2.1) in the presence of the acceptor (mCitrine) is lower than that of the donor alone due to FRET. To test this hypothesis, the fluorescence fluctuation signal and number of molecules of freely diffusing construct were measured using FCS to calculate the molecular brightness of the donor, excited at 405 nm and detected at 475/50 nm, in the presence and absence of the acceptor. Our results indicate that the molecular brightness of cleaved crTC2.1 in a buffer is larger than that of the intact counterpart under 405-nm excitation. The energy transfer efficiency at the single molecule level is larger and more spread in values as compared with the ensemble-averaging time-resolved fluorescence measurements. In contrast, the molecular brightness of the intact crTC2.1, under 488 nm excitation of the acceptor (531/40 nm detection), is the same or slightly larger than that of the cleaved counterpart. These FCS-FRET measurements on freely diffusing donor-acceptor pairs are independent of the precise time constants associated with autocorrelation curves due to the presence of potential photophysical processes. Ultimately, when used in living cells, the proposed approach would only require a low expression level of these genetically encoded constructs, helping to limit potential interference with the cell machinery.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (9) ◽  
pp. e1003761
Fiona E. Lecky ◽  
Olubukola Otesile ◽  
Carl Marincowitz ◽  
Marek Majdan ◽  
Daan Nieboer ◽  

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important global public health burden, where those injured by high-energy transfer (e.g., road traffic collisions) are assumed to have more severe injury and are prioritised by emergency medical service trauma triage tools. However recent studies suggest an increasing TBI disease burden in older people injured through low-energy falls. We aimed to assess the prevalence of low-energy falls among patients presenting to hospital with TBI, and to compare their characteristics, care pathways, and outcomes to TBI caused by high-energy trauma. Methods and findings We conducted a comparative cohort study utilising the CENTER-TBI (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI) Registry, which recorded patient demographics, injury, care pathway, and acute care outcome data in 56 acute trauma receiving hospitals across 18 countries (17 countries in Europe and Israel). Patients presenting with TBI and indications for computed tomography (CT) brain scan between 2014 to 2018 were purposively sampled. The main study outcomes were (i) the prevalence of low-energy falls causing TBI within the overall cohort and (ii) comparisons of TBI patients injured by low-energy falls to TBI patients injured by high-energy transfer—in terms of demographic and injury characteristics, care pathways, and hospital mortality. In total, 22,782 eligible patients were enrolled, and study outcomes were analysed for 21,681 TBI patients with known injury mechanism; 40% (95% CI 39% to 41%) (8,622/21,681) of patients with TBI were injured by low-energy falls. Compared to 13,059 patients injured by high-energy transfer (HE cohort), the those injured through low-energy falls (LE cohort) were older (LE cohort, median 74 [IQR 56 to 84] years, versus HE cohort, median 42 [IQR 25 to 60] years; p < 0.001), more often female (LE cohort, 50% [95% CI 48% to 51%], versus HE cohort, 32% [95% CI 31% to 34%]; p < 0.001), more frequently taking pre-injury anticoagulants or/and platelet aggregation inhibitors (LE cohort, 44% [95% CI 42% to 45%], versus HE cohort, 13% [95% CI 11% to 14%]; p < 0.001), and less often presenting with moderately or severely impaired conscious level (LE cohort, 7.8% [95% CI 5.6% to 9.8%], versus HE cohort, 10% [95% CI 8.7% to 12%]; p < 0.001), but had similar in-hospital mortality (LE cohort, 6.3% [95% CI 4.2% to 8.3%], versus HE cohort, 7.0% [95% CI 5.3% to 8.6%]; p = 0.83). The CT brain scan traumatic abnormality rate was 3% lower in the LE cohort (LE cohort, 29% [95% CI 27% to 31%], versus HE cohort, 32% [95% CI 31% to 34%]; p < 0.001); individuals in the LE cohort were 50% less likely to receive critical care (LE cohort, 12% [95% CI 9.5% to 13%], versus HE cohort, 24% [95% CI 23% to 26%]; p < 0.001) or emergency interventions (LE cohort, 7.5% [95% CI 5.4% to 9.5%], versus HE cohort, 13% [95% CI 12% to 15%]; p < 0.001) than patients injured by high-energy transfer. The purposive sampling strategy and censorship of patient outcomes beyond hospital discharge are the main study limitations. Conclusions We observed that patients sustaining TBI from low-energy falls are an important component of the TBI disease burden and a distinct demographic cohort; further, our findings suggest that energy transfer may not predict intracranial injury or acute care mortality in patients with TBI presenting to hospital. This suggests that factors beyond energy transfer level may be more relevant to prehospital and emergency department TBI triage in older people. A specific focus to improve prevention and care for patients sustaining TBI from low-energy falls is required.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Meijing Li ◽  
Jianfei Ma ◽  
Xueming Li ◽  
Sen-Fang Sui

Phycobilisome (PBS) is the main light-harvesting antenna in cyanobacteria and red algae. How PBS transfers the light energy to photosystem II (PSII) remains to be elucidated. Here we report the in situ structure of the PBS–PSII supercomplex from Porphyridium purpureum UTEX 2757 using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. Our work reveals the organized network of hemiellipsoidal PBS with PSII on the thylakoid membrane in the native cellular environment. In the PBS–PSII supercomplex, each PBS interacts with six PSII monomers, of which four directly bind to the PBS, and two bind indirectly. Additional three ‘connector’ proteins also contribute to the connections between PBS and PSIIs. Two PsbO subunits from adjacent PSII dimers bind with each other, which may promote stabilization of the PBS–PSII supercomplex. By analyzing the interaction interface between PBS and PSII, we reveal that αLCM and ApcD connect with CP43 of PSII monomer and that αLCM also interacts with CP47' of the neighboring PSII monomer, suggesting the multiple light energy delivery pathways. The in situ structures illustrate the coupling pattern of PBS and PSII and the arrangement of the PBS–PSII supercomplex on the thylakoid, providing the near-native 3D structural information of the various energy transfer from PBS to PSII.

2021 ◽  
Yongjun Zheng ◽  
Hong Yang ◽  
Lufang Zhao ◽  
Yuhan Bai ◽  
Xinghua Chen ◽  

By virtue of near-zero optical background and photobleaching, electrochemiluminescence (ECL), an optical phenomenon excited by electrochemical reactions, has drawn extensive attention in both fundamental studies and wide applications especially of ultrasensitive bioassay. Developing diverse ECL emitters is crucial to unlock their multiformity and performances, but remains a formidable challenge, due to the rigorous requirements for ECL. Herein, we report a general intramolecular ECL resonance energy transfer (iECL-RET) strategy to light up ECL-inactive dyes in aqueous solutions using an existing high-performance ECL initiators. As a proof-of-concept, a series of luminol donor-dye acceptor based ECL emitters with near unity RET efficiency and coarse/fine tunable emission wavelengths were demonstrated. Different to previous exploitation of new molecule single-handedly to address all the prerequisites of ECL, each unit in the proposed ECL ensemble performed maximally its own functions. The iECL-RET strategy would greatly expand the family members of ECL emitters for more demanding future applications.

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