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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Lídia Ballell-Hosa ◽  
Elisabet González-Mira ◽  
Hector Santana ◽  
Judit Morla-Folch ◽  
Marc Moreno-Masip ◽  

Topical delivery has received great attention due to its localized drug delivery, its patient compliance, and its low risk for side effects. Recent developments have focused on studying new drug delivery systems as a strategy for addressing the challenges of current topical treatments. Here we describe the advances on an innovative drug delivery platform called DELOS nanovesicles for topical drug delivery. Previously, the production of DELOS nanovesicles demonstrated potentiality for the topical treatment of complex wounds, achieving well-tolerated liquid dispersions by this route. Here, research efforts have been focused on designing these nanocarriers with the best skin tolerability to be applied even to damaged skin, and on exploring the feasibility of adapting the colloidal dispersions to a more suitable dosage form for topical application. Accordingly, these drug delivery systems have been efficiently evolved to a hydrogel using MethocelTM K4M, presenting proper stability and rheological properties. Further, the integrity of these nanocarriers when being gellified has been confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and by Förster resonance energy transfer analysis with fluorescent-labeled DELOS nanovesicles, which is a crucial characterization not widely reported in the literature. Additionally, in vitro experiments have shown that recombinant human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF) protein integrated into gellified DELOS nanovesicles exhibits an enhanced bioactivity compared to the liquid form. Therefore, these studies suggest that such a drug delivery system is maintained unaltered when hydrogellified, becoming the DELOS nanovesicles-based hydrogels, an advanced formulation for topical use.

2022 ◽  
Pengchao Wang ◽  
Guangming Zhang ◽  
Zeling Xu ◽  
Zhe Chen ◽  
Xiaohong Liu ◽  

Bacteria adapt to the constantly changing environments largely by transcriptional regulation through the activities of various transcription factors (TFs). However, techniques that monitor the in situ TF-promoter interactions in living bacteria are lacking. Herein, we developed a whole-cell TF-promoter binding assay based on the intermolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a fluorescent unnatural amino acid CouA which is genetically encoded into defined sites in TFs and the live cell fluorescent nucleic acid stain SYTO 9. We show that this new FRET pair monitors the intricate TF-promoter interactions elicited by various types of signal transduction systems with specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the assay is applicable to identify novel modulators of the regulatory systems of interest and monitor TF activities in bacteria colonized in C. elegans. In conclusion, we established a tractable and sensitive TF-promoter binding assay in living bacteria which not only complements currently available approaches for DNA-protein interactions but also provides novel opportunities for functional annotation of bacterial signal transduction systems and studies of the bacteria-host interface.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 249
Nicoleta Cazacu ◽  
Claudia G. Chilom ◽  
Sorina Iftimie ◽  
Maria Bălășoiu ◽  
Valentina P. Ladygina ◽  

The synthesis of nanoparticles inside microorganisms is an economical alternative to chemical and physical methods of nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, ferrihydrite nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca bacterium in special conditions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), small-angle X-ray (SAXS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and molecular docking. The morphology and the structure of the particles were characterized by means of SEM and SAXS. The elemental content was determined by means of the EDS method. The absorption properties of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The binding mechanism of the biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein, studied by fluorescence, showed a static and weak process, combined with FRET. Protein denaturation by temperature and urea in the presence of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles demonstrated their influence on the unfolding process. The AutoDock Vina and UCSF Chimera programs were used to predict the optimal binding site of the ferrihydrite to BSA and to find the location of the hydrophobic cavities in the sub-domain IIA of the BSA structure.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 561
Andreia C. M. Rodrigues ◽  
Maria Vittoria Barbieri ◽  
Marco Chino ◽  
Giuseppe Manco ◽  
Ferdinando Febbraio

The development of faster, sensitive and real-time methods for detecting organophosphate (OP) pesticides is of utmost priority in the in situ monitoring of these widespread compounds. Research on enzyme-based biosensors is increasing, and a promising candidate as a bioreceptor is the thermostable enzyme esterase-2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (EST2), with a lipase-like Ser–His–Asp catalytic triad with a high affinity for OPs. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a sensitive and reliable method to quantify OPs at environmentally relevant concentrations. For this purpose, the previously developed IAEDANS-labelled EST2-S35C mutant was used, in which tryptophan and IAEDANS fluorophores are the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Fluorometric measurements showed linearity with increased EST2-S35C concentrations. No significant interference was observed in the FRET measurements due to changes in the pH of the medium or the addition of other organic components (glucose, ascorbic acid or yeast extract). Fluorescence quenching due to the presence of paraoxon was observed at concentrations as low as 2 nM, which are considered harmful for the ecosystem. These results pave the way for further experiments encompassing more complex matrices.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 526
Michał Inglot ◽  
Tomasz Szczepański

We present a model of impurity-induced magnetization of graphene assuming that the main source of graphene magnetization is related to impurity states with a localized spin. The analysis of solutions of the Schrödinger equation for electrons near the Dirac point has been performed using the model of massless fermions. For a single impurity, the solution of Schrödinger’s equation is a linear combination of Bessel functions. We found resonance energy levels of the non-magnetic impurity. The magnetic moment of impurity with a localized spin was accounted for the calculation of graphene magnetization using the Green’s function formalism. The spatial distribution of induced magnetization for a single impurity is obtained. The energy of resonance states was also calculated as a function of interaction. This energy is depending on the impurity potential and the coupling constant of interaction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Yuan-I Chen ◽  
Yin-Jui Chang ◽  
Shih-Chu Liao ◽  
Trung Duc Nguyen ◽  
Jianchen Yang ◽  

AbstractFluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful tool to quantify molecular compositions and study molecular states in complex cellular environment as the lifetime readings are not biased by fluorophore concentration or excitation power. However, the current methods to generate FLIM images are either computationally intensive or unreliable when the number of photons acquired at each pixel is low. Here we introduce a new deep learning-based method termed flimGANE (fluorescence lifetime imaging based on Generative Adversarial Network Estimation) that can rapidly generate accurate and high-quality FLIM images even in the photon-starved conditions. We demonstrated our model is up to 2,800 times faster than the gold standard time-domain maximum likelihood estimation (TD_MLE) and that flimGANE provides a more accurate analysis of low-photon-count histograms in barcode identification, cellular structure visualization, Förster resonance energy transfer characterization, and metabolic state analysis in live cells. With its advantages in speed and reliability, flimGANE is particularly useful in fundamental biological research and clinical applications, where high-speed analysis is critical.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ruslan Kalendar ◽  
Akmaral Baidyussen ◽  
Dauren Serikbay ◽  
Lyudmila Zotova ◽  
Gulmira Khassanova ◽  

The proposed method is a modified and improved version of the existing “Allele-specific q-PCR” (ASQ) method for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This method is similar to frequently used techniques like Amplifluor and Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP), as well as others employing common universal probes (UPs) for SNP analyses. In the proposed ASQ method, the fluorophores and quencher are located in separate complementary oligonucleotides. The ASQ method is based on the simultaneous presence in PCR of the following two components: an allele-specific mixture (allele-specific and common primers) and a template-independent detector mixture that contains two or more (up to four) universal probes (UP-1 to 4) and a single universal quencher oligonucleotide (Uni-Q). The SNP site is positioned preferably at a penultimate base in each allele-specific primer, which increases the reaction specificity and allele discrimination. The proposed ASQ method is advanced in providing a very clear and effective measurement of the fluorescence emitted, with very low signal background-noise, and simple procedures convenient for customized modifications and adjustments. Importantly, this ASQ method is estimated as two- to ten-fold cheaper than Amplifluor and KASP, and much cheaper than all those methods that rely on dual-labeled probes without universal components, like TaqMan and Molecular Beacons. Results for SNP genotyping in the barley genes HvSAP16 and HvSAP8, in which stress-associated proteins are controlled, are presented as proven and validated examples. This method is suitable for bi-allelic uniplex reactions but it can potentially be used for 3- or 4-allelic variants or different SNPs in a multiplex format in a range of applications including medical, forensic, or others involving SNP genotyping.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Frédéric Larbret ◽  
Pierric Biber ◽  
Nicholas Dubois ◽  
Stoyan Ivanov ◽  
Laurence Lafanechere ◽  

Actin networks are dynamically regulated through constant depolymerization and polymerization cycles. Although the fundamental mechanisms that govern these processes have been identified, the nature and role of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of actin and actin regulatory proteins are not completely understood. Here, we employed Actin CytoFRET, a method that we developed for real time detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals generated by actin dynamics, to screen a small library of PTM-interfering compounds on a biosensor leukemic T cell line. This strategy led to the identification of small molecule inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) as potent inducers of actin polymerization and blockers of chemotactic cell migration. The examination of the underlying mechanism further revealed that the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin represents a major effector of DUB inhibitor (DUBi)-induced actin reorganization. We found that DUB blockade results in the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and ROS production, associated with cofilin oxidation and dephosphorylation on serine 3, which provokes uncontrolled actin polymerization impairing cell migration. Together, our study highlights DUBs as novel regulators of actin dynamics through ROS-dependent cofilin modulation, and shows that DUBi represent attractive novel tools to impede leukemic cell migration.

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