fluorescence quenching
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2022 ◽  
Vol 198 ◽  
pp. 110014
Qiushuo Huang ◽  
Tiantian Liu ◽  
Danyang Ma ◽  
Junxia Liu ◽  
Tiegang Ren ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 466
Kaixin Chang ◽  
Qianjin Zhu ◽  
Liyan Qi ◽  
Mingwei Guo ◽  
Woming Gao ◽  

Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) were synthesized in a one-step hydrothermal technique utilizing L-lactic acid as that of the source of carbon and ethylenediamine as that of the source of nitrogen, and were characterized using dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ultraviolet-visible spectrum, Fourier-transformed infrared spectrum, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectrum. The generated N-CQDs have a spherical structure and overall diameters ranging from 1–4 nm, and their surface comprises specific functional groups such as amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl, resulting in greater water solubility and fluorescence. The quantum yield of N-CQDs (being 46%) is significantly higher than that of the CQDs synthesized from other biomass in literatures. Its fluorescence intensity is dependent on the excitation wavelength, and N-CQDs release blue light at 365 nm under ultraviolet light. The pH values may impact the protonation of N-CQDs surface functional groups and lead to significant fluorescence quenching of N-CQDs. Therefore, the fluorescence intensity of N-CQDs is the highest at pH 7.0, but it decreases with pH as pH values being either more than or less than pH 7.0. The N-CQDs exhibit high sensitivity to Fe3+ ions, for Fe3+ ions would decrease the fluorescence intensity of N-CQDs by 99.6%, and the influence of Fe3+ ions on N-CQDs fluorescence quenching is slightly affected by other metal ions. Moreover, the fluorescence quenching efficiency of Fe3+ ions displays an obvious linear relationship to Fe3+ concentrations in a wide range of concentrations (up to 200 µM) and with a detection limit of 1.89 µM. Therefore, the generated N-CQDs may be utilized as a robust fluorescence sensor for detecting pH and Fe3+ ions.

2022 ◽  
Adjele Wilson ◽  
Elena A. Andreeva ◽  
Stanislaw Nizinski ◽  
Lea Talbot ◽  
Elisabeth Hartmann ◽  

The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a photoactive protein involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Here, we report on the functional, spectral and structural characteristics of the peculiar Planktothrix PCC7805 OCP (Plankto-OCP). We show that this OCP variant is characterized by higher photoactivation and recovery rates, and a stronger energy-quenching activity, compared to other OCPs studied thus far. We characterize the effect of the functionalizing carotenoid and of his-tagging on these reactions, and the time scales on which these modifications affect photoactivation. The presence of a His-tag at the C-terminus has a large influence on photoactivation, thermal recovery and PBS-fluorescence quenching, and likewise for the nature of the carotenoid that additionally affects the yield and characteristics of excited states and the ns-s dynamics of photoactivated OCP. By solving the structures of Plankto-OCP in the ECN- and CAN-functionalized states, each in two closely-related crystal forms, we further unveil the molecular breathing motions that animate Plankto-OCP at the monomer and dimer levels. We finally discuss the structural changes that could explain the peculiar properties of Plankto-OCP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Krzysztof Żamojć ◽  
Dariusz Wyrzykowski ◽  
Lech Chmurzyński

Due to the fact that surfactant molecules are known to alter the structure (and consequently the function) of a protein, protein–surfactant interactions are very important in the biological, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Although there are numerous studies on the interactions of albumins with surfactants, the investigations are often performed at fixed environmental conditions and limited to separate surface-active agents and consequently do not present an appropriate comparison between their different types and structures. In the present paper, the interactions between selected cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants, namely hexadecylpyridinium chloride (CPC), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate, monopalmitate, and monooleate (TWEEN 20, TWEEN 40, and TWEEN 80, respectively) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied qualitatively and quantitatively in an aqueous solution (10 mM cacodylate buffer; pH 5.0 and 7.0) by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy supported by UV spectrophotometry and CD spectroscopy. Since in the case of all studied systems, the fluorescence intensity of BSA decreased regularly and significantly under the action of the surfactants added, the fluorescence quenching mechanism was analyzed thoroughly with the use of the Stern–Volmer equation (and its modification) and attributed to the formation of BSA–surfactant complexes. The binding efficiency and mode of interactions were evaluated among others by the determination, comparison, and discussion of the values of binding (association) constants of the newly formed complexes and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS). Furthermore, the influence of the structure of the chosen surfactants (charge of hydrophilic head and length of hydrophobic chain) as well as different environmental conditions (pH, temperature) on the binding mode and the strength of the interaction has been investigated and elucidated.

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