biological systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 013-018
Mohini Chandrashekhar Upadhye ◽  
Mohini Chetan Kuchekar ◽  
Rohini Revansiddhappa Pujari ◽  
Nutan Uttam Sable

Biopolymers are compounds prepared by using various living organisms, including plants. These are composed of repeated units of the same or similar structure (monomers) linked together. Rubber, starch, cellulose, proteins and DNA, RNA, chitin, and peptides are some of the examples of natural biopolymers. Biopolymers are a diverse and remarkably versatile class of materials that are either produced by biological systems or synthesize from biological sources. Biopolymers are used in pharmaceutical industry and also in food industry.Naturally derived polymers are also used for conditioning benefits in hair and skin care. Biopolymers have various applications in medicine, food, packaging, and petroleum industries. This review article is focused on various aspects of biopolymers with a special emphasis on role of biopolymers in green nanotechnology and agriculture.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 272
Éva S. Vanamee ◽  
Gábor Lippner ◽  
Denise L. Faustman

Here, we hypothesize that, in biological systems such as cell surface receptors that relay external signals, clustering leads to substantial improvements in signaling efficiency. Representing cooperative signaling networks as planar graphs and applying Euler’s polyhedron formula, we can show that clustering may result in an up to a 200% boost in signaling amplitude dictated solely by the size and geometry of the network. This is a fundamental relationship that applies to all clustered systems regardless of its components. Nature has figured out a way to maximize the signaling amplitude in receptors that relay weak external signals. In addition, in cell-to-cell interactions, clustering both receptors and ligands may result in maximum efficiency and synchronization. The importance of clustering geometry in signaling efficiency goes beyond biological systems and can inform the design of amplifiers in nonbiological systems.

Sergio Faci-Lázaro ◽  
Tatiana Lor ◽  
Guillermo Ródenas ◽  
Juan J. Mazo ◽  
Jordi Soriano ◽  

AbstractIn the last decades, the availability of data about the structure of social, technological and biological systems has provided important insights on the mechanisms governing their correct functioning and robustness. These mechanisms are grounded on the complex backbone of interactions among the constituents of the system, which include both topological and dynamical aspects. Here, we analyze interdependent networks composed of two layers of interacting neuronal units and explore their robustness when these synthetic cultures are subjected to damage in the form of either targeted attack or failure. Our results show that the functionality of these networks does not decrease monotonically with damage but, on the contrary, they are able to increase their level of activity when the experienced damage is sufficiently strong.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Fengyu Zhang ◽  
Yanhong Sun ◽  
Yihao Zhang ◽  
Wenting Shen ◽  
Shujing Wang ◽  

AbstractSynthetic Biology aims to create predictable biological circuits and fully operational biological systems. Although there are methods to create more stable oscillators, such as repressilators, independently controlling the oscillation of reporter genes in terms of their amplitude and period is only on theoretical level. Here, we introduce a new oscillator circuit that can be independently controlled by two inducers in Escherichia coli. Some control components, including σECF11 and NahR, were added to the circuit. By systematically tuning the concentration of the inducers, salicylate and IPTG, the amplitude and period can be modulated independently. Furthermore, we constructed a quantitative model to forecast the regulation results. Under the guidance of the model, the expected oscillation can be regulated by choosing the proper concentration combinations of inducers. In summary, our work achieved independent control of the oscillator circuit, which allows the oscillator to be modularized and used in more complex circuit designs.

2022 ◽  
Mark Walsh ◽  
James Barclay ◽  
Callum Begg ◽  
Jinyi Xuan ◽  
Matthew Kitching

Conglomerate crystallisation is the behaviour responsible for spontaneous resolution and the discovery of molecular chirality by Pasteur. The phenomenon of conglomerate crystallisation of chiral organic molecules has been left largely undocumented and offers synthetic chemists a potential new chiral pool not reliant on biological systems to supply stereochemical information. While other crystallographic behaviours can be interrogated by automated searching, conglomerate crystallisations are not identified within the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and are therefore not accessible by conventional means. By conducting a manual search of the CSD, a list of over 1,700 chiral species capable of conglomerate crystallisation was curated by inspection of the synthetic routes described in each publication. The majority of these are produced by synthetic chemists who seldom note and rarely exploit the implications this phenomenon can have on the enantioenrichment of their crystalline materials. We propose that this list represents a limitless chiral pool which will continually grow in size as more conglomerate crystals are synthesised and recorded.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Ekaterina V. Lengert ◽  
Daria B. Trushina ◽  
Mikhail Soldatov ◽  
Alexey V. Ermakov

Naturally inspired biomaterials such as calcium carbonate, produced in biological systems under specific conditions, exhibit superior properties that are difficult to reproduce in a laboratory. The emergence of microfluidic technologies provides an effective approach for the synthesis of such materials, which increases the interest of researchers in the creation and investigation of crystallization processes. Besides accurate tuning of the synthesis parameters, microfluidic technologies also enable an analysis of the process in situ with a range of methods. Understanding the mechanisms behind the microfluidic biomineralization processes could open a venue for new strategies in the development of advanced materials. In this review, we summarize recent advances in microfluidic synthesis and analysis of CaCO3-based bioinspired nano- and microparticles as well as core-shell structures on its basis. Particular attention is given to the application of calcium carbonate particles for drug delivery.

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