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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Q. Alkhedaide ◽  
A. Mergani ◽  
A. A. Aldhahrani ◽  
A. Sabry ◽  
M. M. Soliman ◽  

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Lena Sophie Pfeifer ◽  
Judith Schmitz ◽  
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou ◽  
Jutta Peterburs ◽  
Silvia Paracchini ◽  

Abstract Background In the general population, 10.6% of people favor their left hand over the right for motor tasks. Previous research suggests higher prevalence of atypical (left-, mixed-, or non-right-) handedness in (i) twins compared to singletons, and in (ii) monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins. Moreover, (iii) studies have shown a higher rate of handedness concordance in monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins, in line with genetic factors playing a role for handedness. Methods By means of a systematic review, we identified 59 studies from previous literature and performed three sets of random effects meta-analyses on (i) twin-to-singleton Odds Ratios (21 studies, n = 189,422 individuals) and (ii) monozygotic-to-dizygotic twin Odds Ratios (48 studies, n = 63,295 individuals), both times for prevalence of left-, mixed-, and non-right-handedness. For monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs we compared (iii) handedness concordance Odds Ratios (44 studies, n = 36,217 twin pairs). We also tested for potential effects of moderating variables, such as sex, age, the method used to assess handedness, and the twins’ zygosity. Results We found (i) evidence for higher prevalence of left- (Odds Ratio = 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.26, 1.57]) and non-right- (Odds Ratio = 1.36, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.22, 1.52]), but not mixed-handedness (Odds Ratio = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.52, 2.27]) among twins compared to singletons. We further showed a decrease in Odds Ratios in more recent studies (post-1975: Odds Ratio = 1.30, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.17, 1.45]) compared to earlier studies (pre-1975: Odds Ratio = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.59–2.27]). While there was (ii) no difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins regarding prevalence of left- (Odds Ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.89, 1.07]), mixed- (Odds Ratio = 0.96, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.46, 1.99]), or non-right-handedness (Odds Ratio = 1.01, 95% Confidence Interval = [0.91, 1.12]), we found that (iii) handedness concordance was elevated among monozygotic compared to dizygotic twin pairs (Odds Ratio = 1.11, 95% Confidence Interval = [1.06, 1.18]). By means of moderator analyses, we did not find evidence for effects of potentially confounding variables. Conclusion We provide the largest and most comprehensive meta-analysis on handedness in twins. Although a raw, unadjusted analysis found a higher prevalence of left- and non-right-, but not mixed-handedness among twins compared to singletons, left-handedness was substantially more prevalent in earlier than in more recent studies. The single large, recent study which included birth weight, Apgar score and gestational age as covariates found no twin-singleton difference in handedness rate, but these covariates could not be included in the present meta-analysis. Together, the secular shift and the influence of covariates probably make it unsafe to conclude that twinning has a genuine relationship to handedness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Debra C. Sellon ◽  
Denis J. Marcellin-Little

Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most common causes of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Risk factors for CCLR include breed (especially large and giant breeds), body weight, gender and spay/neuter status, and age. Few studies have evaluated physical activity and fitness indicators, however, as risk factors for disease. This study used an online questionnaire distributed primarily via social media to assess risk factors for CCLR in dogs actively engaged in agility training or competition to determine demographic and physical activity factors associated with rupture. Results Data from 260 dogs with CCLR were compared to similar data from 1006 dogs without CCLR. All dogs were actively training or competing in agility at the time of CCLR or the time of data submission, respectively. Physical characteristics associated with increased risk of CCLR included younger age, spayed female sex, greater body weight, and greater weight to height ratio. Agility activities associated with increased odds ratios included competition in events sponsored by the North American Dog Agility Council (NADAC), competing at novice and intermediate levels, and competing in fewer than 10 events/year. Odds ratios were lower in dogs that competed in events sponsored by United Kingdom Agility International (UKI). Other activities associated with increased odds ratio for CCLR included involvement in flyball activities and short walks or runs over hilly or flat terrain on a weekly basis. Activities associated with decreased odds ratio included involvement in dock diving, barn hunt, nosework, or lure coursing/racing activities and participation in core balance and strength exercises at least weekly. Conclusions These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that body weight and spay/neuter status are risk factors for CCLR in dogs. This is the first report to demonstrate that risk of CCLR in agility dogs is decreased in dogs that engage in regular core strengthening exercises, compete more frequently, compete at higher levels, and compete in more athletically challenging venues.

Amani Shawki Ahmed ◽  
Dalia Anas Ibrahim ◽  
Tarek Hamdy Hassan ◽  
Wael Galal Abd-El-Azem

Abstract Cleaning products are mixtures of many chemical ingredients that are known to contain sensitizers, disinfectants, and fragrances, as well as strong airway irritants which associated with lower respiratory tract and asthma symptoms. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of occupational asthma and its effect on quality of life among workers in detergent and cleaning products industries in El Asher men Ramadan city. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 780 workers. All participants were personally interviewed at their workplaces and were subjected to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, work characteristics and asthma symptoms, clinical examination, chest X-ray, spirometer, and bronchodilator test. The prevalence of occupational asthma among the studied workers was 35.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender [odds ratio 1.397; 95% CI 1.09–1.96], manually working participants [odds ratio 3.067; 95% CI 1.72–5.46], and history of atopy [odds ratio 1.596; 95% CI 1.09–2.33] were risk factors for development of occupational asthma. The total mean score of asthma-specific quality of life was significantly lower in asthmatic (5.10 ± 0.49) than non-asthmatic workers (5.89 ± 0.46) (P < 0.01) indicating impairment of quality of life among asthmatic group. Workers in detergent and cleaning products industry are at higher risk for developing occupational asthma that adversely affects their general health and quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Whitney Cowman ◽  
Sabrina M. Scroggins ◽  
Wendy S. Hamilton ◽  
Alexandra E. Karras ◽  
Noelle C. Bowdler ◽  

Abstract Background Obesity in pregnancy is common, with more than 50% of pregnant women being overweight or obese. Obesity has been identified as an independent predictor of dysfunctional labor and is associated with increased risk of failed induction of labor resulting in cesarean section. Leptin, an adipokine, is secreted from adipose tissue under the control of the obesity gene. Concentrations of leptin increase with increasing percent body fat due to elevated leptin production from the adipose tissue of obese individuals. Interestingly, the placenta is also a major source of leptin production during pregnancy. Leptin has regulatory effects on neuronal tissue, vascular smooth muscle, and nonvascular smooth muscle systems. It has also been demonstrated that leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility with both intensity and frequency of contractions decreased. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in dysfunctional labor and be associated with the outcome of induction of labor at term. Our aim is to determine whether maternal plasma leptin concentration is indicative of the outcome of induction of labor at term. We hypothesize that elevated maternal plasma leptin levels are associated with a failed term induction of labor resulting in a cesarean delivery. Methods In this case-control study, leptin was measured in 3rd trimester plasma samples. To analyze labor outcomes, 174 women were selected based on having undergone an induction of labor (IOL), (115 women with successful IOL and 59 women with a failed IOL). Plasma samples and clinical information were obtained from the UI Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank (IRB# 200910784). Maternal plasma leptin and total protein concentrations were measured using commercially available assays. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were constructed using regression identified clinically significant confounding variables. All variables were tested at significance level of 0.05. Results Women with failed IOL had higher maternal plasma leptin values (0.5 vs 0.3 pg, P = 0.01). These women were more likely to have obesity (mean BMI 32 vs 27 kg/m2, P = 0.0002) as well as require multiple induction methods (93% vs 73%, p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed Bishop score (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), BMI (OR 0.92, P < 0.001), preeclampsia (OR 0.12, P = 0.010), use of multiple methods of induction (OR 0.22, P = 0.008) and leptin (OR 0.42, P = 0.017) were significantly associated with IOL outcome. Specifically, after controlling for BMI, Bishop Score, and preeclampsia, leptin was still predictive of a failed IOL with an odds ratio of 0.47 (P = 0.046). Finally, using leptin as a predictor for fetal outcomes, leptin was also associated with of fetal intolerance of labor, with an odds ratio of 2.3 (P = 0.027). This association remained but failed to meet statistical significance when controlling for successful (IOL) (OR 1.5, P = 0.50). Conclusions Maternal plasma leptin may be a useful tool for determining which women are likely to have a failed induction of labor and for counseling women about undertaking an induction of labor versus proceeding with cesarean delivery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Silvano Gallus ◽  
Chiara Stival ◽  
Giulia Carreras ◽  
Giuseppe Gorini ◽  
Andrea Amerio ◽  

AbstractOnly a few studies investigated changes in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and heated tobacco product (HTP) use during pandemic restrictions. We conducted a web-based cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 6,003 Italian adults during the strictest phase of the Covid-19 lockdown (April–May 2020). Participants were asked to report changes in e-cigarette and HTP use compared to before the pandemic. E-cigarette users increased from 8.1% to 9.1% and HTP users from 4.0% to 4.5%. Among e-cigarette non-users before lockdown, 1.8% started using e-cigarettes during lockdown. New users were more frequently younger (p for trend 0.001), men (odds ratio, OR 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.03–2.34), cannabis users (OR 2.35; 95% CI: 1.33–4.13), gamblers (OR 3.34; 95% CI: 2.18–5.11) and individuals with anxiety symptoms (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.00–2.52). 1.0% of HTP non-users started using it during lockdown. New users were less frequently current than never cigarette smokers (OR 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06–0.61) and more frequently gamblers (OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.22–4.07). E-cigarettes and HTPs played little role as smoking cessation tools for hardcore smokers but rather provided opportunities for young never smokers to engage in socially acceptable activities, perhaps reflecting the obstacles they faced in obtaining other addictive substances during confinement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-60
Bianca Elicker Rosin ◽  
André Luís Marcelo Albuquerque ◽  
Rodrigo Ribeiro e Silva ◽  
João Pedro Ribeiro Baptista ◽  
Carla Gisele Vaichulonis ◽  

Objective: To compare different levels of education with adverse perinatal outcomes in low-risk patients. Methodology: Cross-sectional study, puerperae were randomly selected, usual risk, attended in the public network, with single gestation. The evaluated puerperae were divided into 3 groups, according to education: primary or less, secondary and higher or more. The outcomes evaluated were cesarean section, neonatal ICU, low 1st minute Apgar, prematurity, and low birth weight. The calculation of the odds ratio had a 95% confidence interval. Results: the population was divided into 3 groups, 187 (52.9%) puerperal women with primary education or less, 437 (60.5%) patients with secondary education and 98 (13.6%) patients with higher education or more.  Maternal characteristics differed in terms of age, previous pregnancies, normal deliveries, previous cesarean sections, age of 1st pregnancy, number of prenatal visits, income, number of people living in the household, and tobacco use. In the newborn profile, there was a difference only regarding cesarean sections. After calculating the odds ratio, it was seen that patients with primary education or less had a lower propensity to perform a cesarean section (0.511 95%CI 0.290-0.900), as well as patients with secondary education (0.530 95%CI 0.322-0.873), both compared to the population with higher education or more. In the other outcomes, no significance was observed. Conclusion: Primary and secondary education proved to be protective factors for cesarean section. No difference was found regarding prematurity, low birth weight, need for neonatal ICU and low 1st minute Apgar score.

2022 ◽  
Ryuta Muraki ◽  
Yoshifumi Morita ◽  
Shinya Ida ◽  
Ryo Kitajima ◽  
Satoru Furuhashi ◽  

Abstract Background: Various hemostatic devices have been utilized to reduce blood loss during hepatectomy. Nonetheless, a comparison between monopolar and bipolar coagulation, particularly their usefulness or inferiority, has been poorly documented. The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of these hemostatic devices.Methods: A total of 264 patients who underwent open hepatectomy at our institution from January 2009 to December 2018 were included. Monopolar and bipolar hemostatic devices were used in 160 (monopolar group) and 104 (bipolar group) cases, respectively. Operative outcomes and thermal damage to the resected specimens were compared between these groups using propensity score matching according to background factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for postoperative complications.Results: After propensity score matching, 73 patients per group were enrolled. The monopolar group had significantly lower total operative time (239 vs. 275 min; P=0.013) and intraoperative blood loss (487 vs. 790 mL; P<0.001). However, the incidence rates of ascites (27.4% vs. 8.2%; P=0.002) and grade ≥3 intra-abdominal infection (12.3% vs. 2.7%; P=0.028) were significantly higher in the monopolar group. Thermal damage to the resected specimens was significantly longer in the monopolar group (4.6 vs. 1.2 mm; P<0.001). Use of monopolar hemostatic device was an independent risk factor for ascites (odds ratio, 5.626, 95% confidence interval 1.881–16.827; P=0.002) and severe intra-abdominal infection (odds ratio, 5.905, 95% confidence interval 1.096–31.825; P=0.039).Conclusions: Although monopolar devices have an excellent hemostatic ability, they might damage the remnant liver. The use of monopolar devices can be one of the factors that increase the frequency of complications.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Shinobu Tamura ◽  
Takahiro Kaki ◽  
Mayako Niwa ◽  
Yukiko Yamano ◽  
Shintaro Kawai ◽  

Background and Objectives: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased in Wakayama, Japan, due to the spread of the highly infectious B.1.1.7 variant. Before this event, the medical systems were almost unaffected. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and the risk factors for therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. Materials and Methods: This single-center retrospective study enrolled 185 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in our hospital without intensive care between 14 March and 31 May 2021. Results: In this period, 125 (67.6%) of the 185 patients had the B.1.1.7 variant. Sixty-three patients (34.1%) required remdesivir treatment. Age upon admission and length of hospitalization were significantly different between remdesivir treatment and careful observation groups (mean (standard deviation); 59.6 (14.7) versus 45.3 (20.6) years; p < 0.001 and median (interquartile range); 10 (9–12) versus 9 (8–10) years; p < 0.001). One patient was transferred to another hospital because of disease progression. At hospital admission, age ≥60 years (odds ratio (OR) 6.90, p < 0.001), a previous history of diabetes mellitus (OR 20.9, p = 0.002), B.1.1.7 variant (OR 5.30; p = 0.005), lower respiratory symptoms (OR 3.13, p = 0.011), headache (OR 3.82, p = 0.011), and fever ≥37.5 °C (OR 4.55, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors to require remdesivir treatment during the admission. Conclusions: Many patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 required the therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. From the clinical data obtained at admission, these risk factors could contribute to a prediction regarding the requirement of remdesivir treatment in cases of mild to moderate COVID-19.

Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi ◽  
Abdoreza Ghoreishi ◽  
Reza Rikhtegar ◽  
Payam Sariaslani ◽  
Shahram Rafie ◽  

Background: Rates of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) differ depending regard are scarce in the Middle Eastern region. Methods: The present retrospective study was performed on data extracted from the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke (SITS) registry. Computed tomography (CT) image analysis was based on the SITS-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) definition for symptomatic ICH (SICH). Functional outcome at 3 months was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Multivariate logistic regression including adjusted analysis was used for comparison between groups. Results: Of 6615 patients, 1055 were enrolled. A total of 86% (n = 906) received a standard dose and 14% (n = 149) received a low dose of alteplase. Favorable 3-month outcome was achieved in 481 (53%) patients in the standard group and 71 (48%) patients in the low-dose group [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.75, P = 0.218]. SICH occurred in 14 (1.5%) patients in the standard group and 3 (2%) patients in the low-dose group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.77, 95% CI: 0.36-21.04, P = 0.120]. At 3 months, mortality occurred in 145 (16.0%) patients in the standard group and 29 (19.4%) patients in the low-dose group (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.78-1.91, P = 0.346). Conclusion: Low-dose compared to standard-dose alteplase for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was not associated with fewer hemorrhagic events and there was no significant difference in the favorable 3-month outcome (mRS: 0-2) or mortality rate.

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