Retrospective Cohort Study
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Karen M. Barclay ◽  
Monique F. Kilkenny ◽  
Sibilah J. Breen ◽  
Olivia F. Ryan ◽  
Kathleen L. Bagot ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Afnan O. Al-Zain ◽  
Adel M. Abdel-Azim ◽  
Hisham I. Othman

Background. Knowledge and psychomotor skills are essential in dental education. The aims were to (1) investigate the correlation between dental students’ didactic and psychomotor skills performance in the dental anatomy and preclinical operative dentistry courses and (2) explore the impact of gender on students’ performance in both courses. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed on dental students’ (164 students; 72 males and 92 females) dental anatomy and preclinical operative courses scores of the same class over 2 years (2018–2020). Didactic and practical scores were collected. The didactic scores included examinations. Practical scores included tooth wax carving for the dental anatomy course and class II cavity preparations and restorations for the preclinical operative. Student’s t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the difference between the didactic and psychomotor skills scores of both courses and genders. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to explore correlations ( p < 0.05 ). Results. Moderate, positive, and significant correlations were found between didactic scores in both courses and between dental anatomy’s didactic and psychomotor skills. A weak, positive, and significant correlation existed between the preclinical operative didactic and psychomotor silks ( p < 0.05 ). Females’ didactic performance was significantly better than males. Gender had a significant, positive, and moderate correlation in the dental anatomy course, but moderate-weak in preclinical operative ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Students’ didactic and psychomotor performance correlations in dental anatomy and preclinical operative courses were positive. The correlation was moderate and weak and varied by course. Gender had a significant impact on student performance and varied by procedure and courses investigated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Hardenson Rodríguez González ◽  
Sergio Andrade Mejía ◽  
Javier Orlando Contreras Ortiz ◽  
Adriana Patricia Osorno Gutiérrez ◽  
Jorge Eliécer Botero López ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. archdischild-2021-322355
Young June Choe ◽  
Young-Joon Park ◽  
Eun-Young Kim ◽  
Myoungyoun Jo ◽  
Eun Young Cho ◽  

ObjectiveThere is an urgent public need to readdress the school closure strategies. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in schools and school-aged children to understand their roles in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 in Korea.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingAll schools in KoreaPatientsAll school-aged children in Korea.InterventionsNone (observational study).Main outcome measuresIncidence rate, proportion of affected schools.ResultsBetween February and December 2020, the incidence rate was lower among school-aged children (63.2–79.8 per 100 000) compared with adults aged 19 and above (130.4 per 100 000). Household was the main route of transmission (62.3%), followed by community (21.3%) and school clusters (7.9%). Among the schools in Korea, 52% of secondary schools had COVID-19 cases, followed by 39% of primary schools and 3% of kindergartens.ConclusionsWe found that schools and school-aged children aged 7–18 years were not the main drivers of COVID-19 transmission. The major sources of transmission were households.

2021 ◽  
pp. 164-169
V. V. Tsurko ◽  
M. A. Gromova

Introduction. To date, there is no consensus regarding the gender characteristics of the course of gout. There is little data on the possible difference between men and women in response to uric acid-lowering therapy.Aim. To compare the clinical characteristics of the course of gout and evaluate the differences in response to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) with allopurinol and febuxostat in men and women.Material and methods. The retrospective cohort study included 279 men and 83 women diagnosed with gout (ACR/EULAR, 2015). The comparative analysis of the clinical characteristics of gout, as well as responses to the intake of xanthioxidase (XO) inhibitors in representatives of different sexes, was carried out. We compared the gender characteristics of obtaining a positive response to ULT, defined as achieving a target serum uric acid (sUA) level of < 360 μmol / l within 6 months of treatment, while taking allopurinol and febuxostat.Results. By the age at which the onset of gout took place, women were older than men, the duration of the disease in them was shorter. Men showed a shorter duration of the first attack of arthritis. Chronic arthritis was diagnosed in 56% of men and 35% of women (p < 0.05). The process involved the joints of both the lower and upper extremities. However, more often the joints of the lower extremities were affected in men, and in the upper extremities in women. Tophus were detected in 35% of patients, of whom 30.3% were men, 4.7% were women (p < 0.05). Allopurinol was prescribed to 216 men and 54 women, and febuxostat was prescribed to 63 men and 29 women. After six months, the proportion of women who achieved the target sUA was 57.5% and 65.8%, the proportion of men – 60.4% and 76.2% for allopurinol and febuxostat, respectively.Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of gout in men and women differ. Due to the pronounced increase in the level of uric acid, men develop more severe joint damage due to the tendency to chronicity. However, the study did not reveal gender differences in the response to XO inhibitors, which indicates that there is no need to choose therapy depending on the patient’s gender.

2021 ◽  
Sabrine Douiyeb ◽  
Jara R. de la Court ◽  
Bram Tuinte ◽  
Ferdi Sombogaard ◽  
Rogier P. Schade ◽  

Abstract Background: In the Netherlands, home treatment with intravenous antimicrobial therapy is a relatively new concept. Although several studies have shown that outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) can be administered safely, people receiving antimicrobials at home remain at risk for adverse events, including readmission.Objectives: The aim of our retrospective study is to identify risk factors for readmission in patients discharged with OPAT.Method: Retrospective cohort study during a period of January 2016 - December 2018. Patients, age > 18 years, discharged with OPAT were included. Variables collected consisted of baseline demographics, complications, readmission within 30 days and treatment failure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for readmission.Results: A total of 247 patients were included; the most common reason for OPAT was bone and joint infections (17%). Penicillin (37%), cephalosporin (26%) and vancomycin/aminoglycoside (15%) were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Among the patients receiving medication subject to therapeutic drug monitoring (i.e. aminoglycosides or vancomycin), 51% (19/37) received weekly therapeutic drug monitoring. Receiving aminoglycosides or vancomycin (adjusted OR: 2.05; 95% CI, 1.30-3.25, p<0.05) and infection of prosthetic material (adjusted OR: 2.92, 95% CI, 1.11-7.65, p<0.05) were independent risk factors for readmission. Conclusion: Although patients receiving medication subject to therapeutic drug monitoring are at higher risk of readmission, only half of the patients discharged with aminoglycosides or vancomycin were monitored according to IDSA guidelines. A specialized team in charge of monitoring OPAT-patients is likely to increase the rate of monitoring to prevent readmissions and complications.

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