virus transmission
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Prod. Roshan R. Kolte

Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly affected our day-to-day life the world trade and movements. Wearing a face mask is very essentials for protecting against virus. People also wear mask to cover themselves in order to reduce the spread of covid virus. The corona virus covid-19 pandemic is causing a global health crisis so the effective protection method is wearing a face mask in public area according to the world health organization (WHO). The covid-19 pandemic forced government across the world to impose lockdowns to prevent virus transmission report indicates that wearing face mask while at work clearly reduce the risk of transmission .we will use the dataset to build a covid-19 face mask detector with computer vision using python,opencv,tensorflow,keras library and deep learning. Our goal is to identify whether the person on image or live video stream is wearing mask or not wearing face mask this can help to society and whole organization to avoid the transfer of virus one person to antother.we used computer vision and deep learning modules to detect a with mask image and without mask image. Keywords: face detection, face recognition, CNN, SVM, opencv, python, tensorflow, keras.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Hirohito Ogawa ◽  
Daisuke Fujikura ◽  
Hikaru Namba ◽  
Nobuko Yamashita ◽  
Tomoyuki Honda ◽  

Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a T-lymphotropic virus and the etiological agent of exanthem subitum. HHV-6B is present in a latent or persistent form after primary infection and is produced in the salivary glands or transmitted to this organ. Infected individuals continue to secrete the virus in their saliva, which is thus considered a source for virus transmission. HHV-6B primarily propagates in T cells because its entry receptor, CD134, is mainly expressed by activated T cells. The virus then spreads to the host’s organs, including the salivary glands, nervous system, and liver. However, CD134 expression is not detected in these organs. Therefore, HHV-6B may be entering cells via a currently unidentified cell surface molecule, but the mechanisms for this have not yet been investigated. In this study, we investigated a CD134-independent virus entry mechanism in the parotid-derived cell line HSY. First, we confirmed viral infection in CD134-membrane unanchored HSY cells. We then determined that nectin cell adhesion molecule 2 (nectin-2) mediated virus entry and that HHV-6B-insensitive T-cells transduced with nectin-2 were transformed into virus-permissive cells. We also found that virus entry was significantly reduced in nectin-2 knockout parotid-derived cells. Furthermore, we showed that HHV-6B glycoprotein B (gB) interacted with the nectin-2 V-set domain. The results suggest that nectin-2 acts as an HHV-6B entry-mediated protein.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Ugo Avila-Ponce de León ◽  
Eric Avila-Vales ◽  
Kuanlin Huang

In a population with ongoing vaccination, the trajectory of a pandemic is determined by how the virus spreads in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals that exhibit distinct transmission dynamics based on different levels of natural and vaccine-induced immunity. We developed a mathematical model that considers both subpopulations and immunity parameters, including vaccination rates, vaccine effectiveness, and a gradual loss of protection. The model forecasted the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in the US under varied transmission and vaccination rates. We further obtained the control reproduction number and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how each parameter may affect virus transmission. Although our model has several limitations, the number of infected individuals was shown to be a magnitude greater (~10×) in the unvaccinated subpopulation compared to the vaccinated subpopulation. Our results show that a combination of strengthening vaccine-induced immunity and preventative behavioral measures like face mask-wearing and contact tracing will likely be required to deaccelerate the spread of infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Xinyi Hao ◽  
Bolei Jiao ◽  
Yunlei Wang ◽  
Boxing Shang ◽  
Yan Xu

Grapevine (Vitis spp.) is globally one of the most economically important fruit crops. China is the largest grapevine-growing country of the world and Shaanxi province is one of the major grapevine-growing provinces in the country. A survey of GLRaV-3 found it widespread, with 57–100% infection frequencies, in both wine and table grapevine cultivars of three grapevine-growing regions of Shaanxi province. The virus infection frequencies varied with cultivars and regions. In order to obtain the full genomic length of a new GLRaV-3 isolate, GLRaV-3-Sau (accession number MK988555), was sequenced. This isolate has a genome of 18026 nucleotides, and 14 open reading frames (ORFs). The full-genome of the isolate GLRaV-3-Sau shared 85.88% nucleotide identity to GLRaV-3-LN, another isolate found in China. Coat protein (CP) genes of GLRaV-3 isolates were identical (99%) to the Vitis vinifera isolate (accession number HQ185608.1) from the USA. Immunohistochemistry for virus localization found that distribution patterns were similar in red-berried cultivar ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and white-berried cultivar ‘Chardonnay’, and GLRaV-3 is restricted in phloem tissue of vascular bundles. Virus transmission by micrografting found virus transmission efficiency was higher in ‘Chardonnay’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ than in ‘Hunan-1’, indicating that ‘Hunan-1’ was less sensitive to GLRaV-3. As far as we know, these are the most comprehensive comparisons on the genome and CP genes of GLRaV-3 worldwide and the first to have found that the grapevine ‘Hunan-1’ is less susceptible to GLRaV-3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Julie Niemann Holm-Jacobsen ◽  
Caspar Bundgaard-Nielsen ◽  
Louise Søndergaard Rold ◽  
Ann-Maria Jensen ◽  
Shakil Shakar ◽  

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, 2019. Virus transmission primarily occurs through close contact, respiratory droplets, and aerosol particles. However, since SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in fecal and rectal samples from infected individuals, the fecal-oral route has been suggested as another potential route of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical implications of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients.Methods: Hospitalized and non-hospitalized adults and children who were recently tested with a pharyngeal COVID-19 test, were included in the study. A rectal swab was collected from all participants. Hospitalized adults and COVID-19 positive children were followed with both pharyngeal and rectal swabs until two consecutive negative results were obtained. RT-qPCR targeting the envelope gene was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the samples. Demographic, medical, and biochemical information was obtained through questionnaires and medical records.Results: Twenty-eight of 52 (53.8%) COVID-19 positive adults and children were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in rectal swabs. Seven of the rectal positive participants were followed for more than 6 days. Two of these (28.6%) continued to test positive in their rectal swabs for up to 29 days after the pharyngeal swabs had turned negative. Hospitalized rectal positive and rectal negative adults were comparable regarding demographic, medical, and biochemical information. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the severity of the disease among the two groups.Conclusions: We provided evidence of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients. The clinical importance of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding appears to be minimal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dimitrios Tsiotas ◽  
Vassilis Tselios

AbstractThe worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is a complex and multivariate process differentiated across countries, and geographical distance is acceptable as a critical determinant of the uneven spreading. Although social connectivity is a defining condition for virus transmission, the network paradigm in the study of the COVID-19 spatio-temporal spread has not been used accordingly. Toward contributing to this demand, this paper uses network analysis to develop a multidimensional methodological framework for understanding the uneven (cross-country) spread of COVID-19 in the context of the globally interconnected economy. The globally interconnected system of tourism mobility is modeled as a complex network and studied within the context of a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model composed of network connectivity, economic openness, and spatial impedance variables. The analysis reveals two main stages in the temporal spread of COVID-19, defined by the cutting-point of the 44th day from Wuhan. The first describes the outbreak in Asia and North America, the second stage in Europe, South America, and Africa, while the outbreak in Oceania intermediates. The analysis also illustrates that the average node degree exponentially decays as a function of COVID-19 emergence time. This finding implies that the highly connected nodes, in the Global Tourism Network (GTN), are disproportionally earlier infected by the pandemic than the other nodes. Moreover, countries with the same network centrality as China are early infected on average by COVID-19. The paper also finds that network interconnectedness, economic openness, and transport integration are critical determinants in the early global spread of the pandemic, and it reveals that the spatio-temporal patterns of the worldwide spreading of COVID-19 are more a matter of network interconnectivity than of spatial proximity.

Annalaura Ferrari ◽  
Selena Russo ◽  
Catia Quagliotto ◽  
Roberta Granello ◽  
Lorenza Menato ◽  

AbstractAfter the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in March 2020, the majority of hospital policies have followed guidelines aimed to prevent the virus transmission and the families’ entry was denied in all hospital wards and intensive care units (ICU). Despite being necessary, such restrictions have been experienced with discomfort and sufferings by the general ICU staff of Treviso Hospital (Italy) and by families of patients. Therefore, from April 2020, a step-by-step project was developed to reactivate contact with COVID-19 patients’ families. The several requests and appeals of intensive care communities and organizations, both nationally and internationally, motivated the Treviso hospital initiative, leading to a model that might be potentially useful to other intensive care units worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Camille Victoire Migné ◽  
Vaclav Hönig ◽  
Sarah Irène Bonnet ◽  
Martin Palus ◽  
Sabine Rakotobe ◽  

AbstractUp to 170 tick-borne viruses (TBVs) have been identified to date. However, there is a paucity of information regarding TBVs and their interaction with respective vectors, limiting the development of new effective and urgently needed control methods. To overcome this gap of knowledge, it is essential to reproduce transmission cycles under controlled laboratory conditions. In this study we assessed an artificial feeding system (AFS) and an immersion technique (IT) to infect Ixodes ricinus ticks with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Kemerovo (KEM) virus, both known to be transmitted predominantly by ixodid ticks. Both methods permitted TBEV acquisition by ticks and we further confirmed virus trans-stadial transmission and onward transmission to a vertebrate host. However, only artificial feeding system allowed to demonstrate both acquisition by ticks and trans-stadial transmission for KEMV. Yet we did not observe transmission of KEMV to mice (IFNAR−/− or BALB/c). Artificial infection methods of ticks are important tools to study tick-virus interactions. When optimally used under laboratory settings, they provide important insights into tick-borne virus transmission cycles.

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