Hepatitis B Virus
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Shenmiao Yang ◽  
Rong Zhu ◽  
Nan Li ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Rui Zuo ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) with drugs such as ibrutinib and rituximab is often associated with immune suppression, opportunistic infections, and reactivation of virus infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). This risk is especially important in geographical regions like Asia where many potential therapy recipients have HBV infection. Also, whether safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in Asians and Europeans with advanced CLL/SLL are similar is unknown. We determined the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib compared with rituximab in advanced CLL/SLL including persons with HBV infection. We compared outcomes with data published from trials in persons of European descent. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This is a post hoc analysis of a multicenter, phase-3 trial (NCT01973387). Subjects with advanced CLL/SLL were randomized 2:1 to receive ibrutinib, 420 mg/day, or rituximab, 500 mg/mE + 2, for 6 cycles. Subjects with resolved HBV infection were included. Endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), survival, and adverse events including resolved HBV reactivation. <b><i>Results:</i></b> 131 subjects received ibrutinib (<i>N</i> = 87) or rituximab (<i>N</i> = 44) including 53 with resolved HBV infection. Median follow-up was 31 months (95% confidence interval: 28, 32 months). ORR was 61% (50, 71%) versus 7% (2, 18%; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Median PFS was not reached in the ibrutinib cohort but must be &#x3e;40 months versus 8 months (7, 9 months; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.0001) in the rituximab cohort. Median survival was not reached but must be &#x3e;40 months versus 27 months (17 months, NE; <i>p</i> = 0.0006). In multivariable analyses, receiving ibrutinib increased PFS (hazard rate [HR] for failure = 0.12 [0.06, 0.23]; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001) and decreased risk of death (HR = 0.31 [0.15, 0.63]; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Median duration of exposure to ibrutinib was significantly longer than exposure to rituximab (28 vs. 5 months). The safety profile of ibrutinib was consistent with that observed in previous studies with no new safety signal. No subject receiving ibrutinib had HBV reactivation versus 2 receiving rituximab, despite much greater use of drugs to prevent HBV reactivation in the rituximab cohort. Outcomes were like those reported in persons of European descent, except ORR which, was unreliably correlated with PFS in Asians. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Ibrutinib is safe and effective in persons with advanced CLL/SLL and better than rituximab in all therapy outcomes including risk of HBV reactivation. Outcomes with ibrutinib in Chinese were like those reported in persons of predominately European descent.

2021 ◽  
Jonas Wolf ◽  
Thiago Kastell Mazeto ◽  
Vagner Reinaldo Zingalli Bueno Pereira ◽  
Daniel Simon ◽  
Vagner Ricardo Lunge

Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype F evolution is not completely understood in Latin America. This study aims to evaluate the molecular evolution of HBV-F in Latin America by comparing 224 whole-genome sequences. Bayesian coalescent analysis was performed to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor. Four main clades were formed dated back between 1245 and 1730. Also, four subclades were identified dated back between 1705 and 1801. HBV-F overall effective population size grew in the 18th century and showed an initial circulation of HBV-F from Venezuela to other countries from Latin America.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tian-Yu Zhao ◽  
Qing-Wei Cong ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Li-Ying Yao ◽  
Ying Zhu

Background: Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is major used as an indicator for the differential diagnosis of anemia. Macrocytic anemia in decompensated cirrhosis is common. However, the relationship between macrocytic anemia and decompensated hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated cirrhosis has not been fully addressed.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 457 patients diagnosed decompensated HBV associated cirrhosis who met all inclusion criteria from 2011 to 2018 were analyzed. Association between macrocytic anemia and the liver damaged (Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score) were examined using multiple logistic regression analyses and identified using smooth curve fitting.Results: Compared with normocytic anemia, MCV and MELD are significantly positively correlated in macrocytic anemia (p &lt; 0.001). A non-linear relationship of MCV and MELD association was found though the piecewise linear spline models in patients with decompensated HBV associated cirrhosis. MCV positive correlated with MELD when the MCV was greater than 98.2 fl (regression coefficient = 0.008, 95% CI 0.1, 0.4).Conclusion: Macrocytic anemia may be a reliable predictor for mortality because it is closely related to the degree of liver damage in patients with decompensated HBV associated cirrhosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1190-1202
Gadji Mahamat ◽  
Sebastien Kenmoe ◽  
Etheline W Akazong ◽  
Jean Thierry Ebogo-Belobo ◽  
Donatien Serge Mbaga ◽  

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 936
Olajumoke Oludoun ◽  
Olukayode Adebimpe ◽  
James Ndako ◽  
Michael Adeniyi ◽  
Oluwakemi Abiodun ◽  

Despite the intervention of WHO on vaccination for reducing the spread of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), there are records of the high prevalence of HBV in some regions. In this paper, a mathematical model was formulated to analyze the acquisition and transmission process of the virus with the view of identifying the possible way of reducing the menace and mitigating the risk of the virus. The models' positivity and boundedness were demonstrated using well-known theorems. Equating the differential equations to zero demonstrates the equilibria of the solutions i.e., the disease-free and endemic equilibrium. The next Generation Matrix method was used to compute the basic reproduction number for the models. Local and global stabilities of the models were shown via linearization and Lyapunov function methods respectively. The importance of testing and treatment on the dynamics of HBV were fully discussed in this paper. It was discovered that testing at the acute stage of the virus and chronic unaware state helps in better management of the virus.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257103
Theophilus Quaye ◽  
Patrick Williams Narkwa ◽  
Seth A. Domfeh ◽  
Gloria Kattah ◽  
Mohamed Mutocheluh

Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective preventive measure in reducing the incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver failure and death. Ghana introduced the universal HBV vaccination in the national Expanded Programme on Immunization in 2002. The current study sought to determine the sero-protection rate and the prevalence of HBV infection among fully vaccinated children in the West Gonja District in the Savanna Region of Ghana. This cross-sectional study recruited three hundred and fifty (350) fully vaccinated children who visited West Gonja Catholic Hospital from September to December 2019 for healthcare. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics. The clinical history of the participants was obtained from the hospital records. Sera were separated from 2-5ml of blood sample collected from each participant after informed consent had been sought from their parents/guardians. Sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc using ELISA. Samples positive for HBsAg or anti-HBc were tested for HBV DNA by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. The overall sero-protection rate (anti-HBs titers ≥ 10 mIU/mL) among the studied participants was 56% with anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) of 95.7 mIU/mL (± 6.0; 95% CI) compared with GMT of 2.8 mIU/mL (± 0.2; 95% CI) among non-seroprotected participants. There was no statistically significant difference in sero-protection rate between males and females (p-value = 0.93) and in relation to age (p-value = 0.20). The prevalence of HBV infection among studied participants as determined by the HBV DNA/HBsAg positivity was 1.4% while anti-HBc sero-positivity was 2%. Even though the sero-protection rate and HBV infection rate reported in the current study compares with that of other international studies further studies need to be conducted to understand the factors related to sero-protection and HBV infection rate in the Savanna Region of Ghana.

Aging ◽  
2021 ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Minfeng Zhang ◽  
Nan Li ◽  
Rui Pu ◽  
Ting Wu ◽  

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