hepatitis b virus
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Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 203 ◽  
pp. 75-82
S. Mehmandoost ◽  
M. Khezri ◽  
G. Mousavian ◽  
F. Tavakoli ◽  
F. Mehrabi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 172-179
Laté Mawuli Lawson-Ananissoh ◽  
Aklesso Bagny ◽  
Oumboma Bouglouga ◽  
Laconi Kaaga ◽  
Gad Namdiro ◽  

Background: The process of hepatic fibrosis is common to the various etiologies of chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis B. Objective: To evaluate hepatic fibrosis by non-invasive markers such as Aspartate-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), fibrotest and fibroscan. Patients and Method: This was a descriptive study during a period of 32 months. Included in our study were the records of outpatients, chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus without viral co-infection C, D or HIV, followed in the Gastroenterology unit of the Campus Teaching Hospital of Lome-Togo. Results: We retained 222 patients. Among the patients, 148 patients (66.67%) were classified in Phase 3 (inactive carrying). Only 10 patients (4.50%) had a APRI score indicating a fibrosis stage ≥ F4 (presence of cirrhosis). A FIB-4 score indicating the presence of cirrhosis was found in 12 patients (5.40%). The most represented stage at fibrotest was the F0 stage (45.45%). Cirrhosis was noted in 6.06% of cases at fibroscan. Patients with APRI score ≤ 2 (96.23%) had a FIB-4 score ≤ 3.25, (p = 0.0088). Conclusion: The evaluation of hepatic fibrosis during chronic hepatopathies is essential for patients care because it influences therapeutic decisions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ruochan Chen ◽  
Ju Zou ◽  
Liyuan Long ◽  
Haiyue Huang ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  

BackgroundTenofovir alafenamide fumarate has been used in late pregnancy; however, no data exist regarding its safety and effectiveness in early and middle pregnancy for mothers with hepatitis B virus infection.AimsTo design a prospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of TAF in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection during early-middle pregnancy.MethodsPregnant women with active chronic hepatitis B who received tenofovir alafenamide fumarate during early and middle pregnancy were enrolled and followed up until 6 months postpartum. Infants received immunoprophylaxis. The primary endpoint was the safety of mothers and infants. The secondary endpoints were maternal hepatitis B virus DNA reduction at delivery and mother-to-child transmission rate.ResultsAmong 98 mothers enrolled, 31 initiated tenofovir alafenamide fumarate in early pregnancy, and 57 in middle pregnancy. The mean (± standard deviation) age was 29.00 (±3.81) years. At delivery, 100% (98/98) of the mothers achieved hepatitis B virus DNA levels <200,000 IU/L. Ninety-eight infants were born, and none had congenital defects or malformations. All infants received hepatitis B virus immunoprophylaxis. The mother-to-child transmission rate was 0%. Growth parameters including body weight, height, and head circumference were comparable to the national standards for physical development. No severe adverse effects were reported in either mothers or infants. No severe liver function damage occurred in any of the mothers.ConclusionsInitiating tenofovir alafenamide fumarate in early and middle pregnancy appears safe for both mothers and infants, and it is effective for controlling maternal disease as well as interrupting mother-to-child transmission.

Shinji Kamisuki ◽  
Hisanobu Shibasaki ◽  
Koudai Ashikawa ◽  
Kazuki Kanno ◽  
Koichi Watashi ◽  

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Mohammed A AlAteeq ◽  
Latifa M AlEnazi ◽  
Modhi S AlShammari ◽  
Essa E AlAnazi ◽  
Fadel H Al-Hababi ◽  

Huda Zaid Al-Shami ◽  
Zaid Ali Mohammed Al-Mutawakal ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Muhamed Ahmed Al-Haimi ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Al-Haddad ◽  

Background: Hepatic jaundice results from abnormal metabolism of bilirubin in the liver. The main hepatic jaundice causes are severe damage to hepatocytes due to autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, drugs/ medication induced, or, less commonly, hereditary genetic diseases. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B Virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in patients with hepatic jaundice as causes of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Sana'a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: Data of patients with hepatic jaundice tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, total anti-HCV antibody, and anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were collected from Class I Viral Diagnostic Laboratories in Sana'a for 3 years. Then the statistical analysis of the data was used where the descriptive analysis was calculated: frequency and percentage, as well as the association of infection with sex and age group by means of detection odds ratio, 95% CI and X2 more than 3.9 and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study included 644 males (43.8%) and 826 females (56.2%), while most patients were less than 21 years old. The rate of Hepatitis viruses positive was 27.6% positive. Hepatitis A virus infection was the most common virus diagnosed accounting for 259 cases (17.6% of the total), while HBV was less common with 104 (7.1%) and HCV only 42 cases (2.9%). The highest incidence of hepatitis B was in 11-20 years patients (18.2%), with an associated OR 9.3 (p < 0.0001). The highest incidence of hepatitis C was in 31-40 years patients (7.3%), with an associated OR 3.3 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:  Alarmingly changing the epidemiology and dynamics of hepatitis A-C viruses in Yemen, a detailed study is required to understand the definite disease problem caused by these viruses. It is noticeable in this study the high prevalence of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus in the Yemeni population with hepatic jaundice. Also, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report epidemiological transformation of hepatitis A virus in Sana'a, Yemen.                     Peer Review History: Received: 13 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 30 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arı, Ankara University, Turkiye, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Gulam Mohammed Husain,, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, Hyderabad, India, [email protected] Dr. Salfarina Ramli, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. [email protected]   Similar Articles: PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOTYPES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED AMONG SELECTED YEMENI PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B INFECTION SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEPATITIS B, C, HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN HODEIDA CITY- YEMEN EXPLOSION OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUSES AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF HEMODIALYSIS CRISIS IN YEMEN

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Young Chang ◽  
Soung Won Jeong ◽  
Jae Young Jang

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation associated with various therapeutic interventions is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or resolved HBV infection. Because no curative treatment for HBV infection is yet available, there are many individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population. Populations at risk for HBV reactivation include patients who are currently infected with HBV or who have been exposed to HBV in the past. HBV reactivation and its potential consequences is a concern when these populations are exposed to anti-cancer chemotherapy, immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies for the management of various malignancies, rheumatologic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, or solid-organ or hematologic stem cell transplantation. Accordingly, it has become important to understand the basics of HBV reactivation and the mechanisms by which certain therapies are more susceptible to HBV reactivation. This review aims to raise the awareness of HBV reactivation and to understand the mechanisms and the risks of HBV reactivation in various clinical settings.

Shirin Nkongolo ◽  
Julius Hollnberger ◽  
Stephan Urban

ZusammenfassungDie Blockade des Zelleintritts von Krankheitserregern ist ein geeigneter Ansatz, um Neuinfektionen zu verhindern. Der therapeutische Einsatz von Eintrittsinhibitoren bei chronisch infizierten Patienten war jedoch bisher nur begrenzt erfolgreich. Zur Behandlung von chronischen Hepatitis-D-Virus-(HDV-)Infektionen wurde im Juli 2020 mit Bulevirtide (BLV) ein vielversprechender Wirkstoff bedingt zugelassen, der auf diesem Wirkprinzip beruht. Zuvor hatten für HDV keine gezielte Medikation zur Verfügung gestanden und die Behandlung beruhte auf dem Off-Label-Einsatz von Interferon-Alpha/Peginterferon-Alpha (IFNα/Peg-IFNα). In diesem Beitrag wird ein Überblick über die Grundlagen des Wirkmechanismus von BLV gegeben und bisher vorliegende klinische Daten werden zusammengefasst.Eine HDV-Infektion manifestiert sich als Ko- oder Superinfektion bei Hepatitis-B-Virus-(HBV-)Infektionen und betrifft 4,5–15 % der HBV-Patienten weltweit. HDV nutzt die Hüllproteine von HBV zur Verbreitung. BLV wirkt, indem es den HBV/HDV-Rezeptor natriumtaurocholat-co-transportierendes Polypeptid (NTCP) blockiert und so den Eintritt von HBV/HDV in Hepatozyten verhindert. BLV senkt die HDV-Serum-RNA-Spiegel und führt bei HBV/HDV-infizierten Personen zur Normalisierung der Alanin-Aminotransferase-(ALT-)Werte. Es hat ein ausgezeichnetes Sicherheitsprofil, selbst wenn es über 48 Wochen in hohen Dosen (10 mg täglich) verabreicht wird. In Kombination mit Peg-IFNα zeigt BLV synergistische Effekte auf die Senkung der HDV-RNA im Serum, aber auch auf die Hepatitis-B-Oberflächenantigen-(HBsAg‑)Spiegel. Dies führte bei einer Untergruppe von Patienten zu einer funktionellen Heilung, wenn 2 mg BLV plus Peg-IFNα verabreicht wurden. Der Mechanismus dieser wahrscheinlich immunvermittelten Eliminierung wird in Folgestudien untersucht.

Christoph Neumann-Haefelin ◽  
Robert Thimme

ZusammenfassungZur Therapie der chronischen Hepatitis-B-Virus-(HBV-)Infektion stehen aktuell pegyliertes Interferon-Alpha und Nucleosid‑/Nucleotidanaloga (Entecavir und Tenofovir) zur Verfügung. Diese Medikamente ermöglichen eine Virussuppression und eine Normalisierung des Leberenzyms Glutamat-Pyruvat-Transaminase (GPT) und verhindern ein Fortschreiten der Lebererkrankung. Zahlreiche noch in klinischer Entwicklung befindliche Therapiestrategien haben jedoch eine funktionelle Heilung zum Ziel. Dabei soll erreicht werden, dass das HBV-Hüllprotein HBsAg im Blutserum nicht mehr nachweisbar ist („ausgeheilte“ Hepatitis B). Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht über aktuelle und mögliche zukünftige antivirale Therapien gegen die chronische HBV-Infektion. Als Grundlage diente eine Literaturrecherche unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der aktuellen Leitlinien sowie aktueller Kongressbeiträge.Die aktuell verfügbaren antiviralen Therapien führen nur sehr selten zur Elimination von HBsAg (funktionelle Heilung). Auch ist bisher weitgehend unklar, bei welchen Patienten ein Absetzen der Langzeittherapie mit Entecavir bzw. Tenofovir sinnvoll ist. Neue Therapiestrategien in klinischer Entwicklung führen bei einem höheren Anteil der Patienten zur funktionellen Heilung. Wahrscheinlich ist aber eine Kombination mehrerer antiviraler Strategien erforderlich, um die funktionelle Heilung für die Mehrheit der Patienten zu erreichen. Eine solche Therapie kann voraussichtlich in den nächsten 5–10 Jahren vorliegen.

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