Recently Published Documents
An in vitro study regarding an animal model for the attenuation of SARS-CoV-2: Are cats possible candidates?
Abstract Although the origin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not definitively known, this virus is seen that adapted to human. It is known yet, several animal species are naturally susceptible for SARS-CoV-2, including pets. In this in vitro study, it was investigated whether cats could have a host status in this infection. It was also following questioned, whether cats could be an animal model for vaccine attenuation. Felis catus whole fetus 4 (FCWF-4) and Vero cells were used in this study for propagation of SARS-CoV-2-Ank1 strain. Virus replication was controlled by immunohistochemistry and real time pcr techniques. While an increase in virus titer was detected in the serious passages made in Vero cells, no increase was observed in the FCWF-4 cell. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Due to the fact that SARS CoV 2 is a zoonotic potential, its presence in domestic animals frequently investigated in current studies. Cats can get this virus from infected owners with whom they share the same habitat. The results of this study also showed that cats are not candidates to be a natural source of infection for SARS-CoV-2.
Efectos de un derivado de indenopiridina, RTI-4587-073 (l), en la reproducción del gato doméstico (Felis catus)
Con el objetivo de contribuir al control y mejora de la reproducción de felinos domésticos, este Trabajo de Tesis se planteó como objetivos: 1) evaluar el efecto de la indenopiridina RTI-4587-073 (l) en la espermatogénesis; 2) describir y comparar la ecogenicidad y heterogeneidad testicular mediante análisis digital de imágenes ultrasonográficas en: a) testículos normales y con alteraciones en la espermatogénesis y b) gatos prepuberales, peripuberales y adultos. En el primer capítulo, 30 gatos machos adultos, se trataron (día 0) con 12,5 mg/kg PO de RTI-4587-073 (L) y se hemiorquiectomizaron a los -14 días, 6 horas, 12 horas, 1 día, 7 días, 14 días, 21 días, 35 días o 42 días. Previamente, se tomaron muestras para determinación de testosterona (T) fecal. Los testículos se evaluaron macro y microscópicamente. El RTI-4587-073 (L) no provocó cambios en: parámetros macroscópicos testiculares (P>0,1), concentraciones de T fecal (P>0,1) ni aparición de efectos secundarios. Histológicamente, a partir de las 6 horas, se observó desorganización de la citoarquitectura del epitelio seminífero y disminución del volumen de todos sus componentes, excepto las espermatogonias. Estos cambios desaparecieron gradualmente hacia el final del estudio. Así, el RTI-4587-073 (L) provoca rápida interrupción de la espermatogénesis con retorno a la normalidad en aproximadamente un ciclo espermático, sin efectos secundarios. En el segundo capítulo, se incluyeron 7 gatos machos adultos en un modelo experimental de daño espermatogénico, mediante administraciones sucesivas de un antagonista de GnRH. Previa y posteriormente, los testículos se evaluaron mediante ultrasonografía modo B. La ecogenicidad y heterogeneidad se analizaron digitalmente, cuantificándolas como la intensidad media de pixeles (IMP) y su desvío standard (DS), respectivamente. Los animales se orquiectomizaron, y los parámetros histomorfométricos testiculares se correlacionaron con las variables ultrasonográficas. La ecogenicidad (P<0,05) pero no la heterogeneidad (P<0,1), disminuyó tras el deterioro espermatogénico (P>0,1). No se halló correlación entre parámetros ecográficos e histológicos. En el tercer capítulo, 14 gatos machos adultos, se evaluaron ultrasonográficamente como en el capítulo anterior. Luego de ser orquiectomizados, se clasificaron histomorfométricamente como Prepuberales,Peripuberales o Pospuberales. La IMP (P<0,05) y la SD (P<0,05) se incrementaron a la pubertad. Los parámetros ultrasonográficos e histomorfométricos mostraron estar fuertemente correlacionados. El análisis digital de imágenes ultrasonográficas modo B podría convertirse en una herramienta diagnóstica útil en la evaluación de la funcionalidad reproductiva del gato doméstico.
Early maternal separation is not associated with changes in telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus)
Objective Studies of multiple species have found that adverse early life experiences, including childhood trauma and maternal separation, can result in accelerated telomere shortening. The objective of this study was to determine if premature separation from the mother affected telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus). Subjects were 42 orphaned kittens and 10 mother-reared kittens from local animal rescue groups and shelters. DNA was extracted from whole blood collected from kittens at approximately 1 week and 2 months of age. Telomere length was assessed by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) from a total of 86 samples and expressed as a ratio of telomere PCR relative to a single copy gene PCR (T/S). Results A generalized linear mixed model found there were no detectable differences in telomere length based on survival (F1, 76.2 = 3.35, p = 0.07), orphan status (F1, 56.5 = 0.44, p = 0.51), time point (F1, 43.5 = 0.19, p = 0.67), or the interaction between orphan status and time (F1, 43.5 = 0.86, p = 0.36). Although in other species telomere shortening is commonly associated with aging, even early in life, we did not find evidence for telomere shortening by two months of age. Our results suggest that the experience of early maternal separation in domestic cats who are subsequently hand-reared by humans does not accelerate telomere shortening compared to mother-reared kittens, at least in the first few months of life.
Aspectos epidemiológicos de hemoparasitose em gatos domésticos (Felis catus) da região Amazônica Mato-Grossense
Gatos domésticos (Felis catus) correm o risco de serem acometidos por agentes transmitidos por carrapatos, mesmo sendo menos susceptíveis a infestações desses vetores. Dentre esses agentes, Anaplasma platys vem chamando atenção por suas características patogênicas que podem se tornar ainda mais severas, quando associada a outros agentes bacterianos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar de modo retrospectivo279 laudos de exames para pesquisa de hemoparasitoses em gatos domésticos, realizados na região Amazônica Mato-grossense entre os anos de 2016 e 2018. A associação com as variáveis independentes (raça, sexo, idade e estação do ano)foi realizada através do teste Exato de Fisher com nível de confiança de 95%, a razão de prevalência (RP) foi calculada através da regressão de Poisson, todas as análises foram realizadas pelo programa SPSS versão 2.0. Dentre os laudos analisados, foram detectadas apenas formas parasitárias com características de Anaplasma platys, este agente foi detectado em 41 (14,7%) dos 279 laudos de gatos domésticos analisados neste estudo.Destaca-se maior prevalência da infecção em filhotes, contudo não houve distinção de prevalência entre períodos de estiagem e chuvosos, assim como nas variáveis raça e sexo não foi observada diferença significativa.
Full-genome characterization of a novel Felis catus papillomavirus 4 subtype identified in a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of a domestic cat
Abstract Due to their life-history traits, the petrels are particularly sensitive to predation by introduced species. Therefore, many populations have constricted their original breeding distribution range, currently only occupying predator-free sites. In this scenario, interspecific competition for nesting sites can be detrimental for the petrel’ conservation. Here, we evaluate how the presence of introduced mammals (cats Felis catus and rats Rattus spp.) and potential competitors for nest sites (Cory’s shearwaters Calonectris borealis and feral rock pigeons Columba livia) shape the distribution, breeding density, and breeding performance of the Bulwer’s petrel Bulweria bulwerii on Tenerife, the largest and most densely populated of the Canary Islands. We estimated nest density, assessed the role of nest location and nest characteristics on breeding success, and determined causes of breeding failure by exotic predators and competitors. Nest density was higher in predator-free colonies on marine rocks. Cat presence was the best predictor for nest density, while presence or abundance of competitors had no correlation to nest density. Breeding success varied between years and colonies, but was not related to nest characteristics. Of the unequivocally determined causes of breeding failure, pigeon competition for nests was the most frequent (7.3%), followed by rat predation (6.3%). We also compared petrel and pigeon nest cavities and found a considerable overlap in nesting niche. Our study provides insight on an overlooked impact of the invasive rock pigeon: nest competition with small seabirds. We encourage more research on the effects of pigeons on nest density, disease and pathogen transmission, and vegetation changes within petrel colonies.
AbstractKokumi taste is a well-accepted and characterised taste modality and is described as a sensation of enhancement of sweet, salty, and umami tastes. The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) has been designated as the putative kokumi taste receptor for humans, and a number of kokumi-active ligands of CaSR have been discovered recently with activity confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are obligate carnivores and accordingly, their diet is abundant in proteins, peptides, and amino acids. We hypothesised that CaSR is a key taste receptor for carnivores, due to its role in the detection of different peptides and amino acids in other species. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches, here we compare human CaSR to that of a model carnivore, the domestic cat. We found broad similarities in ligand specificity, but differences in taste sensitivity between the two species. Indeed our in vivo data shows that cats are sensitive to CaCl2 as a kokumi compound, but don’t show this same activity with Glutathione, whereas for humans the reverse is true. Collectively, our data suggest that kokumi is an important taste modality for carnivores that drives the palatability of meat-derived compounds such as amino acids and peptides, and that there are differences in the perception of kokumi taste between carnivores and omnivores.
Domestic cats (Felis catus) are ubiquitous predators of birds in urban areas. In addition to the lethal effect of predation, there can also be sublethal, negative effects of domestic cats on individual birds. These effects have led to the inference that reducing outdoor cat densities would benefit urban bird communities. Here we estimate the likely result of policies/programs designed to reduce densities of owned outdoor cats in urban areas, estimating relationships between bird richness/abundance and cat densities across 58 landscapes in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. We estimate that we would most likely observe one additional bird species, and 0.003 additional individuals per species, if policies/programs reduced owned outdoor cat densities to zero in an average landscape in Ottawa (with 130.2 cats/km2). However, these effects of cat density on birds were uncertain, with 95% confidence intervals crossing zero. Our findings—in combination with those of previous studies—suggest a need for research to resolve the apparent disconnect between the strong, negative effects of cats on individual urban birds and the weak, uncertain effects of cats on bird populations. Although measures that reduce owned outdoor cat densities are justified based on the precautionary principle, evidence to date does not support prioritizing these measures over those addressing threats that have consistently strong effects on bird populations.
Does aerial baiting for controlling feral cats in a heterogeneous landscape confer benefits to a threatened native meso-predator?
Introduced mammalian predators can have devastating impacts on recipient ecosystems and disrupt native predator–prey relationships. Feral cats (Felis catus) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of many Australian native species and developing effective and affordable methods to control them is a national priority. While there has been considerable progress in the lethal control of feral cats, effective management at landscape scales has proved challenging. Justification of the allocation of resources to feral cat control programs requires demonstration of the conservation benefit baiting provides to native species susceptible to cat predation. Here, we examined the effectiveness of a landscape-scale Eradicat® baiting program to protect threatened northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) from feral cat predation in a heterogeneous rocky landscape in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. We used camera traps and GPS collars fitted to feral cats to monitor changes in activity patterns of feral cats and northern quolls at a baited treatment site and unbaited reference site over four years. Feral cat populations appeared to be naturally sparse in our study area, and camera trap monitoring showed no significant effect of baiting on cat detections. However, mortality rates of collared feral cats ranged from 18–33% after baiting, indicating that the program was reducing cat numbers. Our study demonstrated that feral cat baiting had a positive effect on northern quoll populations, with evidence of range expansion at the treatment site. We suggest that the rugged rocky habitat preferred by northern quolls in the Pilbara buffered them to some extent from feral cat predation, and baiting was sufficient to demonstrate a positive effect in this relatively short-term project. A more strategic approach to feral cat management is likely to be required in the longer-term to maximise the efficacy of control programs and thereby improve the conservation outlook for susceptible threatened fauna.