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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Noor ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
I. Hussain ◽  
...  

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird’s enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


Author(s):  
Selva Ishwarya ◽  
Muthulakshmi S ◽  
Vijayalakshmi K ◽  
Kaliappan M ◽  
VIMAL SHANMUGANATHAN

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
G. G. Silva ◽  
A. J. Green ◽  
C. Stenert ◽  
L. Maltchik

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Umar ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
S. K. Maloney

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


2022 ◽  
Vol 184 ◽  
pp. 19-26
Author(s):  
Jan Jedlikowski ◽  
Marcin Polak ◽  
Paweł Ręk

2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119931
Author(s):  
Natalie R. Harris ◽  
William D. Gulsby ◽  
Robert A. Gitzen ◽  
Christopher A. Lepczyk

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Walsh ◽  
Amrita Pattanaik ◽  
Navya Vyas ◽  
Deepak Saxena ◽  
Cameron Webb ◽  
...  

Wild reservoirs of Japanese encephalitis virus are under-studied globally, which presents critical knowledge gaps for JEV infection ecology despite decades of received wisdom regarding this high-impact mosquito-borne virus. As a result, ardeid birds, generally understood to be the primary reservoirs for JEV, as well as other waterbirds occupying landscapes at high risk for spillover to humans, are frequently ignored by current surveillance mechanisms and infrastructure. This is particularly true in India, which experiences a high annual burden of human outbreaks. Incorporating wild reservoirs into surveillance of human and livestock populations is therefore essential but will first require a data-driven approach to target individual host species. The current study sought to define a preliminary ecological profile of JEV hosts based on 1) species ecological traits, and 2) species presence and abundance adjusted for the biotic constraints of sympatry. Optimal host species tended to be generalists and demonstrate regionally-increasing populations. While ardeid bird species richness, abundance, and relative abundance did demonstrate the strongest and most consistent associations with the distribution of human JEV outbreaks, this study also identified several individual species among two other bird families in these landscapes, the Anatidae and the Rallidae, which also exhibited an optimal host profile and were strongly associated with the distribution of outbreaks. The findings from this work provide the first data-driven evidence base to inform wildlife sampling for the monitoring of JEV circulation in outbreak hotspots in India and thus identify good preliminary targets for the development of One Health wildlife JEV surveillance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Diana Rubene ◽  
Utku Urhan ◽  
Velemir Ninkovic ◽  
Anders Brodin

Ability to efficiently localize productive foraging habitat is crucial for nesting success of insectivorous birds. Some bird species can use olfaction to identify caterpillar-infested trees by detection of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), but these cues probably need to be learned. So far, we know very little about the process of olfactory learning in birds, whether insectivorous species have a predisposition for detecting and learning HIPVs, due to the high ecological significance of these odors, and how olfaction is integrated with vision in making foraging decisions. In a standardized setup, we tested whether 35 wild-caught great tits (Parus major) show any preference for widely abundant HIPVs compared to neutral (non-induced) plant odors, how fast they learn to associate olfactory, visual and multimodal foraging cues with food, and whether the olfactory preferences and learning speed were influenced by bird sex or habitat (urban or rural). We also tested how fast birds switch to a new cue of the same modality. Great tits showed no initial preference for HIPVs compared to neutral odors, and they learned all olfactory cues at a similar pace, except for methyl salicylate (MeSA), which they learned more slowly. We also found no differences in learning speeds between visual, olfactory and multimodal foraging cues, but birds learned the second cue they were offered faster than the first one. Bird sex or habitat had no effect on learning speed or olfactory preference, but urban birds tended to learn visual cues more slowly. We conclude that insectivorous birds utilize olfactory and visual cues with similar efficiency in foraging, and that they probably don‘t have any special predisposition toward the tested HIPVs. These results confirm that great tits are flexible foragers with good learning abilities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kasun H. Bodawatta ◽  
Irena Klečková ◽  
Jan Klečka ◽  
Kateřina Pužejová ◽  
Bonny Koane ◽  
...  

AbstractThe composition of gut bacterial communities is strongly influenced by the host diet in many animal taxa. For birds, the effect of diet on the microbiomes has been documented through diet manipulation studies. However, for wild birds, most studies have drawn on literature-based information to decipher the dietary effects, thereby, overlooking individual variation in dietary intake. Here we examine how naturally consumed diets influence the composition of the crop and cloacal microbiomes of twenty-one tropical bird species, using visual and metabarcoding-based identification of consumed diets and bacterial 16S rRNA microbiome sequencing. We show that diet intakes vary markedly between individuals of the same species and that literature-based dietary guilds grossly underestimate intraspecific diet variability. Furthermore, despite an effect of literature-based dietary guild assignment of host taxa, the composition of natural diets does not align with crop and cloacal microbiome similarity. However, host-taxon specific gut bacterial lineages are positively correlated with specific diet items, indicating that certain microbes associate with different diet components in specific avian hosts. Consequently, microbiome composition is not congruent with the overall consumed diet composition of species, but specific components of a consumed diet lead to host-specific effects on gut bacterial taxa.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
José Martín Pujolar ◽  
Mozes P. K. Blom ◽  
Andrew Hart Reeve ◽  
Jonathan D. Kennedy ◽  
Petter Zahl Marki ◽  
...  

AbstractTropical mountains harbor exceptional concentrations of Earth’s biodiversity. In topographically complex landscapes, montane species typically inhabit multiple mountainous regions, but are absent in intervening lowland environments. Here we report a comparative analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data for population pairs from eighteen Indo-Pacific bird species from the Moluccan islands of Buru and Seram and from across the island of New Guinea. We test how barrier strength and relative elevational distribution predict population differentiation, rates of historical gene flow, and changes in effective population sizes through time. We find population differentiation to be consistently and positively correlated with barrier strength and a species’ altitudinal floor. Additionally, we find that Pleistocene climate oscillations have had a dramatic influence on the demographics of all species but were most pronounced in regions of smaller geographic area. Surprisingly, even the most divergent taxon pairs at the highest elevations experience gene flow across barriers, implying that dispersal between montane regions is important for the formation of montane assemblages.


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