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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 100282
Emma Pritchard ◽  
Joel Jones ◽  
Karina-Doris Vihta ◽  
Nicole Stoesser ◽  
Prof Philippa C. Matthews ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Yuan Tian ◽  
Ke Zhou ◽  
Dan Pelleg

User engagement is crucial to the long-term success of a mobile app. Several metrics, such as dwell time, have been used for measuring user engagement. However, how to effectively predict user engagement in the context of mobile apps is still an open research question. For example, do the mobile usage contexts (e.g., time of day) in which users access mobile apps impact their dwell time? Answers to such questions could help mobile operating system and publishers to optimize advertising and service placement. In this article, we first conduct an empirical study for assessing how user characteristics, temporal features, and the short/long-term contexts contribute to gains in predicting users’ app dwell time on the population level. The comprehensive analysis is conducted on large app usage logs collected through a mobile advertising company. The dataset covers more than 12K anonymous users and 1.3 million log events. Based on the analysis, we further investigate a novel mobile app engagement prediction problem—can we predict simultaneously what app the user will use next and how long he/she will stay on that app? We propose several strategies for this joint prediction problem and demonstrate that our model can improve the performance significantly when compared with the state-of-the-art baselines. Our work can help mobile system developers in designing a better and more engagement-aware mobile app user experience.

2022 ◽  
Bermond Scoggins ◽  
Matthew Peter Robertson

The scientific method is predicated on transparency -- yet the pace at which transparent research practices are being adopted by the scientific community is slow. The replication crisis in psychology showed that published findings employing statistical inference are threatened by undetected errors, data manipulation, and data falsification. To mitigate these problems and bolster research credibility, open data and preregistration have increasingly been adopted in the natural and social sciences. While many political science and international relations journals have committed to implementing these reforms, the extent of open science practices is unknown. We bring large-scale text analysis and machine learning classifiers to bear on the question. Using population-level data -- 93,931 articles across the top 160 political science and IR journals between 2010 and 2021 -- we find that approximately 21% of all statistical inference papers have open data, and 5% of all experiments are preregistered. Despite this shortfall, the example of leading journals in the field shows that change is feasible and can be effected quickly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Abigail B. Feuka ◽  
Melia G. Nafus ◽  
Amy A. Yackel Adams ◽  
Larissa L. Bailey ◽  
Mevin B. Hooten

Abstract Background Invasive reptiles pose a serious threat to global biodiversity, but early detection of individuals in an incipient population is often hindered by their cryptic nature, sporadic movements, and variation among individuals. Little is known about the mechanisms that affect the movement of these species, which limits our understanding of their dispersal. Our aim was to determine whether translocation or small-scale landscape features affect movement patterns of brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis), a destructive invasive predator on the island of Guam. Methods We conducted a field experiment to compare the movements of resident (control) snakes to those of snakes translocated from forests and urban areas into new urban habitats. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze snake movement mechanisms and account for attributes unique to invasive reptiles by incorporating multiple behavioral states and individual heterogeneity in movement parameters. Results We did not observe strong differences in mechanistic movement parameters (turning angle or step length) among experimental treatment groups. We found some evidence that translocated snakes from both forests and urban areas made longer movements than resident snakes, but variation among individuals within treatment groups weakened this effect. Snakes translocated from forests moved more frequently from pavement than those translocated from urban areas. Snakes translocated from urban areas moved less frequently from buildings than resident snakes. Resident snakes had high individual heterogeneity in movement probability. Conclusions Our approach to modeling movement improved our understanding of invasive reptile dispersal by allowing us to examine the mechanisms that influence their movement. We also demonstrated the importance of accounting for individual heterogeneity in population-level analyses, especially when management goals involve eradication of an invasive species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Eileen Goldberg ◽  
Kathleen Conte ◽  
Victoria Loblay ◽  
Sisse Groen ◽  
Lina Persson ◽  

Abstract Background Population-level health promotion is often conceived as a tension between “top-down” and “bottom-up” strategy and action. We report behind-the-scenes insights from Australia’s largest ever investment in the “top-down” approach, the $45m state-wide scale-up of two childhood obesity programmes. We used Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) as a template to interpret the organisational embedding of the purpose-built software designed to facilitate the initiative. The use of the technology was mandatory for evaluation, i.e. for reporting the proportion of schools and childcare centres which complied with recommended health practices (the implementation targets). Additionally, the software was recommended as a device to guide the implementation process. We set out to study its use in practice. Methods Short-term, high-intensity ethnography with all 14 programme delivery teams across New South Wales was conducted, cross-sectionally, 4 years after scale-up began. The four key mechanisms of NPT (coherence/sensemaking, cognitive participation/engagement, collective action and reflexive monitoring) were used to describe the ways the technology had normalised (embedded). Results Some teams and practitioners embraced how the software offered a way of working systematically with sites to encourage uptake of recommended practices, while others rejected it as a form of “mechanisation”. Conscious choices had to be made at an individual and team level about the practice style offered by the technology—thus prompting personal sensemaking, re-organisation of work, awareness of choices by others and reflexivity about professional values. Local organisational arrangements allowed technology users to enter data and assist the work of non-users—collective action that legitimised opposite behaviours. Thus, the technology and the programme delivery style it represented were normalised by pathways of adoption and non-adoption. Normalised use and non-use were accepted and different choices made by local programme managers were respected. State-wide, implementation targets are being reported as met. Conclusion We observed a form of self-organisation where individual practitioners and teams are finding their own place in a new system, consistent with complexity-based understandings of fostering scale-up in health care. Self-organisation could be facilitated with further cross-team interaction to continuously renew and revise sensemaking processes and support diverse adoption choices across different contexts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Andrzej Z. Wasilczuk ◽  
Qing Cheng Meng ◽  
Andrew R. McKinstry-Wu

Previous studies have demonstrated that the brain has an intrinsic resistance to changes in arousal state. This resistance is most easily measured at the population level in the setting of general anesthesia and has been termed neural inertia. To date, no study has attempted to determine neural inertia in individuals. We hypothesize that individuals with markedly increased or decreased neural inertia might be at increased risk for complications related to state transitions, from awareness under anesthesia, to delayed emergence or confusion/impairment after emergence. Hence, an improved theoretical and practical understanding of neural inertia may have the potential to identify individuals at increased risk for these complications. This study was designed to explicitly measure neural inertia in individuals and empirically test the stochastic model of neural inertia using spectral analysis of the murine EEG. EEG was measured after induction of and emergence from isoflurane administered near the EC50 dose for loss of righting in genetically inbred mice on a timescale that minimizes pharmacokinetic confounds. Neural inertia was assessed by employing classifiers constructed using linear discriminant or supervised machine learning methods to determine if features of EEG spectra reliably demonstrate path dependence at steady-state anesthesia. We also report the existence of neural inertia at the individual level, as well as the population level, and that neural inertia decreases over time, providing direct empirical evidence supporting the predictions of the stochastic model of neural inertia.

2022 ◽  
Zhizhen Zhao ◽  
Ruoqi Liu ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  
Lang Li ◽  
Chi Song ◽  

The identification of associations between drugs and adverse drug events (ADEs) is crucial for drug safety surveillance. An increasing number of studies have revealed that children and seniors are susceptible to ADEs at the population level. However, the comprehensive explorations of age risks in drug-ADE pairs are still limited. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) provides individual case reports, which can be used for quantifying different age risks. In this study, we developed a statistical computational framework to detect age group of patients who are susceptible to some ADEs after taking specific drugs. We adopted different Chi-squared tests and conducted disproportionality analysis to detect drug-ADE pairs with age differences. We analyzed 4,580,113 drug-ADE pairs in FAERS (2004 to 2018Q3) and identified 2,523 pairs with the highest age risk. Furthermore, we conducted a case study on statin-induced ADE in children and youth. The code and results are available at https://github.com/Zhizhen-Zhao/Age-Risk-Identification

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262616
Swarnali Louha ◽  
Camelia Herman ◽  
Mansi Gupta ◽  
Dhruviben Patel ◽  
Julia Kelley ◽  

Sequencing large numbers of individual samples is often needed for countrywide antimalarial drug resistance surveillance. Pooling DNA from several individual samples is an alternative cost and time saving approach for providing allele frequency (AF) estimates at a population level. Using 100 individual patient DNA samples of dried blood spots from a 2017 nationwide drug resistance surveillance study in Haiti, we compared codon coverage of drug resistance-conferring mutations in four Plasmodium falciparum genes (crt, dhps, dhfr, and mdr1), for the same deep sequenced samples run individually and pooled. Samples with similar real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values (+/- 1.0 Ct value) were combined with ten samples per pool. The sequencing success for samples in pools were higher at a lower parasite density than the individual samples sequence method. The median codon coverage for drug resistance-associated mutations in all four genes were greater than 3-fold higher in the pooled samples than in individual samples. The overall codon coverage distribution for pooled samples was wider than the individual samples. The sample pools with < 40 parasites/μL blood showed more discordance in AF calls for dhfr and mdr1 between the individual and pooled samples. This discordance in AF estimation may be due to low amounts of parasite DNA, which could lead to variable PCR amplification efficiencies. Grouping samples with an estimated ≥ 40 parasites/μL blood prior to pooling and deep sequencing yielded the expected population level AF. Pooling DNA samples based on estimates of > 40 parasites/μL prior to deep sequencing can be used for rapid genotyping of a large number of samples for these four genes and possibly other drug resistant markers in population-based studies. As Haiti is a low malaria transmission country with very few mixed infections and continued chloroquine sensitivity, the pooled sequencing approach can be used for routine national molecular surveillance of resistant parasites.

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Hasinthi Swarnamali ◽  
Ranil Jayawardena ◽  
Michail Chourdakis ◽  
Priyanga Ranasinghe

Abstract Background Although it is reported in numerous interventional and observational studies, that a low-fat diet is an effective method to combat overweight and obesity, the relationship at the global population level is not well established. This study aimed to quantify the associations between worldwide per capita fat supply and prevalence of overweight and obesity and further classify this association based on per capita Gross National Income (GNI). Methods A total of 93 countries from four GNI groups were selected. Country-specific overweight and obesity prevalence data were retrieved from the most recent WHO Global Health Observatory database. Per capita supply of fat and calories were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization database; FAOSTAT, Food Balance Sheet for years 2014–2016. The categorizations of countries were done based on GNI based classification by the World Bank. Results Among the selected countries, the overweight prevalence ranged from 3.9% (India) to 78.8% (Kiribati), while obesity prevalence ranged from 3.6% (Bangladesh) to 46.0% (Kiribati). The highest and the lowest per capita fat supply from total calorie supply were documented in Australia (41.2%) and Madagascar (10.5%) respectively. A significant strong positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of overweight (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and obesity (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) with per capita fat supply. The lower ends of both trend lines were densely populated by the low- and lower-middle-income countries and the upper ends of both lines were greatly populated by the high-income countries. Conclusions Per capita fat supply per country is significantly associated with both prevalence of overweight and obesity.

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