wide angle
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Gülnihal Deniz ◽  
Ahmet Kavakli ◽  
Murat Kucukukur ◽  
Evren Kose ◽  
Ilgin Karaca

Objectives: To investigate the diversity and average values of bifurcation angles in a large population to help develop new methods. Methods: One thousand five individuals (504 females, 501 male) who visited the Cardiology Polyclinic of Fırat University Hospital with the complaint of chest pain between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Bifurcation angle measurements between LMCA-CX, CX-LAD, LMCA-LAD, CX-OM1, CX-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2, RCA-RMD, RCA-RVD and PDA-PL were evaluated in all cases. Results: Bifurcation angles between LMCA-LAD, LMCA-Cx and LAD-Cx branches with “> 90 wide angle bifurcations”, and Cx-OM1, Cx-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2, RCA-RMD and PDA-PL with “<70 Y type bifurcation angle” were found to be high in male and female individuals. The RCA-RVD in female individuals was “<70 Y-type bifurcation” in 14 (2.8%) people, “> 70-90 T-type bifurcation” in 209 (41.5%) people, and “> 90 wide angle bifurcation” in 281 (55.8%) people. Results for male subjects were compatible with this. The correlations of all angles were examined. Robust positive correlations (p≤0.001) were found for the angular measurements between the main branches and the side branches (Cx-OM1, Cx-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2 and RCA-RMD, PDA-PL). Conclusion: With the help of developing technology, we believe that all this coronary angiography data will guide bifurcation stent techniques, which are essential alternatives to bypass. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4782 How to cite this:Deniz G, Kavakli A, Kucukukur M, Kose E, Karaca I. Evaluation of major coronary artery Bifurcation angles with digital angiography: A detailed study of prevalence in the Upper Euphrates Basin. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4782 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Arun Agarwal ◽  
Chandan Mohanta ◽  
Gourav Misra

The 5G mobile communication has now become commercially available. Furthermore, research across the globe has begun to improve the system beyond 5G and it is anticipated that 6G will deliver higher quality services and energy efficiency than 5G. The mobile network architecture needs to be redesigned to meet the requirements of the future. In the wake of the commercial rollout of the 5G model, both users and developers have realized the limitations of the system when compared to the system's original premise of being able to support the vast applications of connected devices. The article discusses the related technologies that can contribute to a robust and seamless network service. An upheaval in the use of vast mobile applications, especially those powered and managed by AI, has opened the doors to discussion on how mobile communication will evolve in the future. 6G is expected to go beyond being merely a mobile internet service provider to support the omnipresent AI services that will form the rock bed of end-to-end connected network-based devices. Moreover, the technologies that support 6G services and comprehensive research that enables this level of technical prowess have also been identified here. This paper presents a collective wide-angle vision that will facilitate a better understanding of the features of the 6G system.

Zhibiao Zhu ◽  
He Wang ◽  
Yongfeng Li ◽  
Yueyu Meng ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 ◽  
pp. 366-378
Wei-Sheng Lai ◽  
Yichang Shih ◽  
Chia-Kai Liang ◽  
Ming-Hsuan Yang

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