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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Author(s):  
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  
...  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alizée Froeliger ◽  
Luke Harper ◽  
Sara Tunon de Lara ◽  
Frédéric Lavrand ◽  
Maya Loot ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives To describe our experience with prenatal counselling for surgical anomalies in a large volume center. The secondary aim is to suggest a list of prenatal abnormalities warranting counselling by a pediatric surgeon. Methods We reviewed all prenatal counselling consultations performed by the pediatric surgery team between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2016. Results A total of 169 patients or couples had a prenatal consultation with a pediatric surgeon. Prenatal work-up included a fetal MRI in 26% of cases, mainly for digestive and thoracic pathologies (56.1% of cases). Consultation with the pediatric surgeon led mainly to recommendations concerning the place of delivery. Induction for reasons related to the fetal anomaly occurred in 22.2% of cases. Most children were surgically treated within the first year of life (63.5%). Correlation between predicted prognosis and actual status at four years of life was 96.9%. Correlation between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis was 87.4%. Conclusions Prenatal counselling by a pediatric surgeon allows couples to obtain clear information on the pathology of their unborn child, giving them greater autonomy in their decision to continue the pregnancy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Compère Vincent ◽  
Besnier Emmanuel ◽  
Clavier Thomas ◽  
Byhet Nicolas ◽  
Lefranc Florent ◽  
...  

BackgroundChanges in the health system in Western countries have increased the scope of the daily tasks assigned to physicians', anesthetists included. As already shown in other specialties, increased non-clinical burden reduces the clinical time spent with patients.MethodsThis was a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted in 6 public and private hospitals in France. The primary endpoint was the evaluation by an external observer of the time spent per day (in minutes) by anesthetists on clinical tasks in the operating room. Secondary endpoints were the time spent per day (in minutes) on non-clinical organizational tasks and the number of task interruptions per hour of work.ResultsBetween October 2017 and April 2018, 54 anesthetists from six hospitals (1 public university hospital, two public general hospitals and three private hospitals) were included. They were followed for 96 days corresponding to 550 hours of work. The proportion of overall clinical time was 62% (58% 95%CI [53; 63] for direct care. The proportion of organizational time was higher in public hospitals (11% in the university hospital (p < 0.001) and 4% in general hospitals (p < 0.01)) compared to private hospitals (1%). The number of task interruptions (1.5/h ± 1.4 in all hospitals) was 4 times higher in the university hospital (2.2/h ± 1.6) compared to private hospitals (0.5/h ± 0.3) (p < 0.05).ConclusionsMost time in the operating room was spent on clinical care with a significant contrast between public and private hospitals for organizational time.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 669
Author(s):  
Irfan Ullah Khan ◽  
Nida Aslam ◽  
Talha Anwar ◽  
Hind S. Alsaif ◽  
Sara Mhd. Bachar Chrouf ◽  
...  

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is disrupting the entire world; its rapid global spread threatens to affect millions of people. Accurate and timely diagnosis of COVID-19 is essential to control the spread and alleviate risk. Due to the promising results achieved by integrating machine learning (ML), particularly deep learning (DL), in automating the multiple disease diagnosis process. In the current study, a model based on deep learning was proposed for the automated diagnosis of COVID-19 using chest X-ray images (CXR) and clinical data of the patient. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of integrating clinical patient data with the CXR for automated COVID-19 diagnosis. The proposed model used data collected from King Fahad University Hospital, Dammam, KSA, which consists of 270 patient records. The experiments were carried out first with clinical data, second with the CXR, and finally with clinical data and CXR. The fusion technique was used to combine the clinical features and features extracted from images. The study found that integrating clinical data with the CXR improves diagnostic accuracy. Using the clinical data and the CXR, the model achieved an accuracy of 0.970, a recall of 0.986, a precision of 0.978, and an F-score of 0.982. Further validation was performed by comparing the performance of the proposed system with the diagnosis of an expert. Additionally, the results have shown that the proposed system can be used as a tool that can help the doctors in COVID-19 diagnosis.


Author(s):  
Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  
...  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Author(s):  
Sok-Sithikun Bun ◽  
Florian Asarisi ◽  
Nathan Heme ◽  
Fabien Squara ◽  
Didier Scarlatti ◽  
...  

Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aslınur Albayrak ◽  
Bilgen Başgut ◽  
Gülbin Aygencel Bıkmaz ◽  
Bensu Karahalil

Abstract Background Critically ill patients treated in the intensive care units (ICUs) often suffer from side effects and drug-related problems (DRPs) that can be life-threatening. A way to prevent DRPs and improve drug safety and efficacy is to include clinical pharmacists in the clinical team. This study aims to evaluate the classification of drug-related problems and the implementation of clinical pharmacy services by a clinical pharmacist in the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey. Methods This study was carried out prospectively between December 2020 and July 2021 in Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital Internal Diseases ICU. All patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for more than 24 h were included in the study. During the study, the clinical pharmacist's interventions and other clinical services for patients were recorded. DRPs were classed according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe V.8.02. Results A total of 151 patients were included during the study period corresponding to 2264 patient-days. Patients with DRPs had a longer hospital stay and a higher mortality rate (p < 0.05). 108 patients had at least one DRP and the total number of DRPs was 206. There was an average of 1.36 DRPs per patient, 71.5% of patients experienced DRP and 89.22 DRPs per 1000 patient-days. A total of 35 ADEs were observed in 32 patients. ADE incidence was per 1000 patient-days 15.45. ADEs were caused by nephrotoxicity (48.57%), electrolyte disorders (17.14%), drug-induced thrombocytopenia (17.14%), liver enzyme increase (8.57%) and other causes (8.57%). Drug selection (40.29%) and dose selection (54.36%) constituted most of the causes of DRPs. Dose change was the highest percentage of planned interventions with a rate of 56.79%. Intervention was accepted at a rate of 90.8% and it was fully implemented. Conclusion In this study, the importance of the clinical pharmacist in the determination and analysis of DRPs was emphasized. Clinical pharmacy services like the one described should be implemented widely to increase patient safety.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Author(s):  
Nao Mitsui ◽  
Noriko Hida ◽  
Taro Kamiya ◽  
Taigi Yamazaki ◽  
Kazuki Miyazaki ◽  
...  

Minitablets have garnered interest as a new paediatric formulation that is easier to swallow than liquid formulations. In Japan, besides the latter, fine granules are frequently used for children. We examined the swallowability of multiple drug-free minitablets and compared it with that of fine granules and liquid formulations in 40 children of two age groups (n = 20 each, aged 6–11 and 12–23 months). We compared the percentage of children who could swallow minitablets without chewing with that of children who could swallow fine granules or liquid formulations without leftover. The children who visited the paediatric department of Showa University Hospital were enrolled. Their caregivers were allowed to choose the administration method. In total, 37 out of 40 caregivers dispersed the fine granules in water. Significantly more children (80%, 95% CI: 56–94%) aged 6–11 months could swallow the minitablets than those who could swallow all the dispersed fine granules and liquid formulations (22%, 95% CI: 6–47% and 35%, 95% CI: 15–59%, respectively). No significant differences were observed in children aged 12–23 months. Hence, minitablets may be easier to swallow than dispersed fine granules and liquid formulations in children aged 6–11 months.


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