light absorption
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2022 ◽  
Junjun Deng ◽  
Hao Ma ◽  
Xinfeng Wang ◽  
Shujun Zhong ◽  
Zhimin Zhang ◽  

Abstract. Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols exert vital impacts on climate change and atmospheric photochemistry due to their light absorption in the wavelength range from near-ultraviolet (UV) to visible light. However, the optical properties and formation mechanisms of ambient BrC remain poorly understood, limiting the estimation of their radiative forcing. In the present study, fine aerosols (PM2.5) were collected during 2016–2017 on a day/night basis over urban Tianjin, a megacity in North China, to obtain seasonal and diurnal patterns of atmospheric water-soluble BrC. There were obvious seasonal but no evident diurnal variations in light absorption properties of BrC. In winter, BrC showed much stronger light absorbing ability since mass absorption efficiency at 365 nm (MAE365) (1.54 ± 0.33 m2 g−1), which was 1.8 times larger than that (0.84 ± 0.22 m2 g−1) in summer. Direct radiative effects by BrC absorption relative to black carbon in the UV range were 54.3 ± 16.9 % and 44.6 ± 13.9 %, respectively. In addition, five fluorescent components in BrC, including three humic-like fluorophores and two protein-like fluorophores were identified with excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrometry and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. The lowly-oxygenated components contributed more to winter and nighttime samples, while more-oxygenated components increased in summer and daytime samples. The higher humification index (HIX) together with lower biological index (BIX) and fluorescence index (FI) suggest that the chemical compositions of BrC were associated with a high aromaticity degree in summer and daytime due to photobleaching. Fluorescent properties indicate that wintertime BrC were predominantly affected by primary emissions and fresh secondary organic aerosol (SOA), while summer ones were more influenced by aging processes. Results of source apportionments using organic molecular compositions of the same set of aerosols reveal that fossil fuel combustion and aging processes, primary bioaerosol emission, biomass burning, and biogenic and anthropogenic SOA formation were the main sources of BrC. Biomass burning contributed much larger to BrC in winter and at nighttime, while biogenic SOA contributed more in summer and at daytime. Especially, our study highlights that primary bioaerosol emission is an important source of BrC in urban Tianjin in summer.

Voxob Rustamovich Rasulov ◽  
Rustam Yavkachovich Rasulov ◽  
Mavzurjon Xursandboyevich Qo’chqorov ◽  
Nurillo Ubaydullo o’g’li Kodirov

The polarization and frequency-polarization dependences of the linear-circular dichroism and light absorption coefficients in semiconductors of cubic symmetry, caused by vertical three-photon optical transitions between the states of the spin-orbit splitting and conduction bands, are calculated. KEY WORDS: three-photon optical transitions, spin-orbit splitting band, conduction band, linear-circular dichroism, light absorption, semiconductor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 223-239
Rémy Asselot ◽  
Frank Lunkeit ◽  
Philip B. Holden ◽  
Inga Hense

Abstract. We investigate the ways in which marine biologically mediated heating increases the surface atmospheric temperature. While the effects of phytoplankton light absorption on the ocean have gained attention over the past years, the impact of this biogeophysical mechanism on the atmosphere is still unclear. Phytoplankton light absorption warms the surface of the ocean, which in turn affects the air–sea heat and CO2 exchanges. However, the contribution of air–sea heat versus CO2 fluxes in the phytoplankton-induced atmospheric warming has not been yet determined. Different so-called climate pathways are involved. We distinguish heat exchange, CO2 exchange, dissolved CO2, solubility of CO2 and sea-ice-covered area. To shed more light on this subject, we employ the EcoGEnIE Earth system model that includes a new light penetration scheme and isolate the effects of individual fluxes. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-induced changes in air–sea CO2 exchange warm the atmosphere by 0.71 ∘C due to higher greenhouse gas concentrations. The phytoplankton-induced changes in air–sea heat exchange cool the atmosphere by 0.02 ∘C due to a larger amount of outgoing longwave radiation. Overall, the enhanced air–sea CO2 exchange due to phytoplankton light absorption is the main driver in the biologically induced atmospheric heating.

Nano Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kun Ye ◽  
Lixuan Liu ◽  
Congpu Mu ◽  
Kun Zhai ◽  
Shiliang Guo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 793
Abigail Trujillo-Vazquez ◽  
Harrie Fuller ◽  
Susanne Klein ◽  
Carinna Parraman

Unlike regular pigments based on selective light absorption, the so-called “effect pigments″ are based on the phenomena of structural color, or selective reflectance. Structural color has appealing aesthetic qualities, such as angle-dependent hue, and is able to produce lightfast colors. When used as a pigment, however, the gamut of the print is more limited, the color is difficult to measure, and therefore color management and preprint process become challenging. The aim of this paper is to compare the behavior of effect pigments in the processes of lithographic and screen printing with standard pigments used in so-called process inks, and to analyze their optical properties when used on their own or in combination with absorption pigments. An image of amber beads was printed as screen prints and lithographs. Three sets of inks were used: Set one: Standard process inks in the colors cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK); set two: RGB inks formulated with Merck Spectraval™ pearlescent pigments which allow additive red, green, blue printing on a black substrate; and set three: golden inks formulated with pigments from the Merck Iriodin™ and Pyrisma™ effect pigment range. The image was printed on white and black paper. The optical appearance was assessed visually, and spectra and color coordinates were measured.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 252
Zhi-Lan Zeng ◽  
Hu Sun ◽  
Xiao-Qian Wang ◽  
Shi-Bao Zhang ◽  
Wei Huang

Fluctuating light is a typical light condition in nature and can cause selective photodamage to photosystem I (PSI). The sensitivity of PSI to fluctuating light is influenced by the amplitude of low/high light intensity. Tobacco mature leaves are tended to be horizontal to maximize the light absorption and photosynthesis, but young leaves are usually vertical to diminish the light absorption. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that such regulation of the leaf angle in young leaves might protect PSI against photoinhibition under fluctuating light. We found that, upon a sudden increase in illumination, PSI was over-reduced in extreme young leaves but was oxidized in mature leaves. After fluctuating light treatment, such PSI over-reduction aggravated PSI photoinhibition in young leaves. Furthermore, the leaf angle was tightly correlated to the extent of PSI photoinhibition induced by fluctuating light. Therefore, vertical young leaves are more susceptible to PSI photoinhibition than horizontal mature leaves when exposed to the same fluctuating light. In young leaves, the vertical leaf angle decreased the light absorption and thus lowered the amplitude of low/high light intensity. Therefore, the regulation of the leaf angle was found for the first time as an important strategy used by young leaves to protect PSI against photoinhibition under fluctuating light. To our knowledge, we show here new insight into the photoprotection for PSI under fluctuating light in nature.

Jiaheng Yin ◽  
Lihua Lu ◽  
Yaowen Cui ◽  
Yongzhi Cao ◽  
Yunlong Du

Numerical calculations of ultraviolet to near-infrared absorption spectra by cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) doped in anodic aluminum oxide pores were performed using a finite-difference time-domain model. The height, diameter, and periodic spacing of the pores were optimized. Light absorption by the dots was enhanced by increasing the height and decreasing the diameter of the pores. When the height was less than 1 μm, visible light absorption was enhanced as the spacing was reduced from 400 nm to 100 nm. No enhancement was observed for heights greater than 6 μm. Finally, the optical mode coupling of the aluminum oxide and the quantum dots was enhanced by decreasing the pore diameter and periodic spacing, and increasing the height. Laser ablation verified light absorption enhancement by the CdSe QDs. The experiment verified the improvement of the laser-induced damage ability with wavelength of 355-nm after aluminum alloy 6061 coated with functional films, which was fabricated based on numerical calculations.

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