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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. F. Nawaz ◽  
R. Fatima ◽  
S. Gul ◽  
N. Rana ◽  
I. Ahmad ◽  

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Yiqiu Chen ◽  
Yuting Cheng ◽  
Qiuqin Tang ◽  
Feng Pan ◽  

Abstract Background Several studies have suggested adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) exposure on male reproductive health; few have investigated the association between PM exposure and semen quality in a large population of fertile men. Methods We evaluated 14 parameters of semen quality in 1554 fertile men in Nanjing from 2014 to 2016. Individual exposure to particular matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) during key periods of sperm development (0-90, 0-9, 10-14, 15-69, and 70-90 days before semen collection) were estimated by inverse distance weighting interpolation. Associations between PM exposure and semen quality were estimated using multivariable linear regression. Results Higher 90-days average PM2.5 was in association with decreased sperm motility (2.21% for total motility, 1.93% for progressive motility per 10 μg/m3 increase, P <  0.001) and four quantitative aspects of sperm motion (curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), P <  0.01). The association between PM2.5 exposure and semen quality were generally stronger for the earlier exposure window (70-90 days prior to ejaculation) than for recent exposure (0-9, 10-14, or 15-69 days). In the subgroup of men who had normal sperm parameters (n = 1019), similar results were obtained. Ninety-days PM10 exposure was associated only with decreased VCL and VAP and was not related to sperm concentration. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 adversely affects semen quality, specifically lower sperm motility, in fertile men. Graphical abstract

Juliusz Huber ◽  
Katarzyna Kaczmarek ◽  
Katarzyna Leszczyńska ◽  
Przemysław Daroszewski

The aim of this study was to determine the sustained influence of personalized neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) combined with kinesiotherapy (mainly, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)) on the activity of muscle motor units acting antagonistically at the wrist and the ankle in a large population of post-stroke patients. Clinical evaluations of spasticity (Ashworth scale), manual muscle testing (Lovett scale), and surface electromyography recordings at rest (rEMG) and during attempts of maximal muscle contraction (mcEMG) were performed three times in 120 post-stroke patients (T0: up to 7 days after the incidence; T1: after 21 days of treatment; T2: after 60 days of treatment). Patients (N = 120) were divided into two subgroups—60 patients received personalized NMFES and PNF treatment (NMFES+K), and the other 60 received only PNF (K). The NMFES+K therapy resulted in a decrease in spasticity and an increase in muscle strength of mainly flexor muscles, in comparison with the K group. A positive correlation between the increase of rEMG amplitudes and high Ashworth scale scores and a positive correlation between low amplitudes of mcEMG and low Lovett scale scores were found in the wrist flexors and calf muscles on the paretic side. Negative correlations were found between the rEMG and mcEMG amplitudes in the recordings. The five-grade alternate activity score of the antagonists’ actions improved in the NMFES+K group. These improvements in the results of controlled NMFES treatment combined with PNF in patients having experienced an ischemic stroke, in comparison to the use of kinesiotherapy alone, might justify the application of conjoined rehabilitation procedures based on neurophysiological approaches. Considering the results of clinical and neurophysiological studies, we suppose that NMFES of the antagonistic muscle groups acting at the wrist and the ankle may evoke its positive effects in post-stroke patients by the modulation of the activity more in the spinal motor centers, including the level of Ia inhibitory neurons, than only at the muscular level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Gülnihal Deniz ◽  
Ahmet Kavakli ◽  
Murat Kucukukur ◽  
Evren Kose ◽  
Ilgin Karaca

Objectives: To investigate the diversity and average values of bifurcation angles in a large population to help develop new methods. Methods: One thousand five individuals (504 females, 501 male) who visited the Cardiology Polyclinic of Fırat University Hospital with the complaint of chest pain between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Bifurcation angle measurements between LMCA-CX, CX-LAD, LMCA-LAD, CX-OM1, CX-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2, RCA-RMD, RCA-RVD and PDA-PL were evaluated in all cases. Results: Bifurcation angles between LMCA-LAD, LMCA-Cx and LAD-Cx branches with “> 90 wide angle bifurcations”, and Cx-OM1, Cx-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2, RCA-RMD and PDA-PL with “<70 Y type bifurcation angle” were found to be high in male and female individuals. The RCA-RVD in female individuals was “<70 Y-type bifurcation” in 14 (2.8%) people, “> 70-90 T-type bifurcation” in 209 (41.5%) people, and “> 90 wide angle bifurcation” in 281 (55.8%) people. Results for male subjects were compatible with this. The correlations of all angles were examined. Robust positive correlations (p≤0.001) were found for the angular measurements between the main branches and the side branches (Cx-OM1, Cx-OM2, LAD-D1, LAD-D2 and RCA-RMD, PDA-PL). Conclusion: With the help of developing technology, we believe that all this coronary angiography data will guide bifurcation stent techniques, which are essential alternatives to bypass. doi: How to cite this:Deniz G, Kavakli A, Kucukukur M, Kose E, Karaca I. Evaluation of major coronary artery Bifurcation angles with digital angiography: A detailed study of prevalence in the Upper Euphrates Basin. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Charlotta Pisinger ◽  
Sofie Kirstine Bergman Rasmussen

Abstract Background: A high prevalence of dual use (DU) of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes has been reported across the world. In some countries most users of e-cigarettes are dual users (DUs). We wanted to investigate the health effects of DU and compare with the health effects of exclusive smoking of conventional cigarettes (ESCC). Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane library. The last search was conducted on April 26, 2021. We included original articles on any topic relevant to health, in all languages. Reviewers independently assessed the main risks of bias without the use of automated tools. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Both reviewers independently screened and read all publications. Results: Fifty-five publications (52 studies) were included, 12 of the studies were prospective. There was great heterogeneity across studies both in methodology and outcome. Several studies, especially experimental studies with short-term outcome, found higher levels of harmful substances in ESCC than in DUs, however, the two largest population-based studies, with low risk of selection-bias, found higher levels of harmful substances in DUs than in ESCC. Most studies investigating symptoms or risk of disease were large population-based surveys. One study found that DUs reported a significantly better health than ESCC, while fifteen found a higher risk of e.g., pulmonary, cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors/symptoms, self-reported general health or cancer in DUs than in ESCC. The study with the longest follow-up, six years, found that DUs had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.81–2.70) of a possibly smoking-related disease (confirmed by hospital discharge abstracts) compared with ESCC. Many methodological weaknesses were identified, such as risk of reverse causality. We found a correlation between high tobacco consumption in DUs and findings of negative health outcomes.Conclusion: Due to many methodological weaknesses, it is difficult to draw any strong conclusions, but the results indicate that DU might be as or even more harmful than ESCC. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. Before recommending EC for smoking cessation health authorities should consider the high risk of DU and its potential consequences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anurag Kumar Gautam ◽  
Pranesh Kumar ◽  
Ritu Raj ◽  
Dinesh Kumar ◽  
Bolay Bhattacharya ◽  

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors affecting a large population worldwide, with the fifth and seventh greatest mortality rates among men and women, respectively, and the third prime cause of mortality among cancer victims. Dimethyl itaconate (DI) has been reported to be efficacious in colorectal cancer by decreasing IL-1β release from intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in male albino Wistar rats was treated with DI as an anticancer drug. The function and molecular mechanism of DI against HCC in vivo were assessed using histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot studies. Metabolomics using 1H-NMR was used to investigate metabolic profiles. As per molecular insights, DI has the ability to trigger mitochondrial apoptosis through iNOS- and eNOS-induced activation of the NF-κB/Bcl-2 family of proteins, CytC, caspase-3, and caspase-9 signaling cascade. Serum metabolomics investigations using 1H-NMR revealed that aberrant metabolites in DEN-induced HCC rats were restored to normal following DI therapy. Furthermore, our data revealed that the DI worked as an anti-HCC agent. The anticancer activity of DI was shown to be equivalent to that of the commercial chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Sara Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Antonio Brugos-Larumbe ◽  
Laura Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Felipe Ortuño ◽  
Francisco Guillen-Grima ◽  

(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. A total of 505,889 people over 18 years old were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031–1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267–3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Maria Basta ◽  
Christina Belogianni ◽  
Mary Yannakoulia ◽  
Ioannis Zaganas ◽  
Symeon Panagiotakis ◽  

Inflammation in elderly is associated with physical and cognitive morbidity and mortality. We aimed to explore the association of modifiable lifestyle parameters with inflammation among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. A sub-sample of 117 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 63) and cognitively non-impaired controls (CNI, n = 54) were recruited from a large, population-based cohort in Crete, Greece, of 3140 elders (> 60 years old). All participants underwent assessment of medical history/physical examination, extensive neuropsychiatric/neuropsychological evaluation, diet, three-day 24-h actigraphy, subjective sleep, physical activity, and measurement of IL-6 and TNFα plasma levels. Associations between inflammatory markers and diet, objective sleep duration, subjective sleep quality, and lack of physical activity were assessed using multivariate models. Regression analyses in the total group revealed significant associations between TNF-α and low vegetable consumption (p = 0.003), and marginally with objective long nighttime sleep duration (p = 0.04). In addition, IL-6 was associated with low vegetable consumption (p = 0.001) and lack of physical activity (p = 0.001). Poor diet and lack of physical activity appear to be modifiable risk factors of inflammation, whereas long sleep appears to be a marker of increased inflammatory response in elderly. Our findings may have clinical implications given the association of inflammatory response with morbidity, including cognitive decline, and mortality in elderly.

Eric Manderstedt ◽  
Christer Hallden ◽  
Christina Lind-Hallden ◽  
Johan Elf ◽  
peter svensson ◽  

Background: The protein C (PC) anticoagulant system has a key role in maintaining hemostatic balance. One missense (Ser219Gly) variant in the protein C receptor (PROCR) was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) in genome-wide association studies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the thrombotic risk of rare and common PROCR variants in a large population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults. Patients/Methods: The exonic sequence of PROCR was analyzed for the Ser219Gly variant and other qualifying variants in 28,794 subjects (born 1923-1950, 60% women) without previous VTE, who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (1991-1996). Incidence of VTE was followed up until 2018. Qualifying variants were defined as loss-of-function or non-benign (PolyPhen-2) missense variants with minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%. Results: Resequencing identified 36 PROCR variants in the study population (26,210 non-VTE exomes and 2584 VTE exomes), 11 synonymous, 22 missense and three loss-of-function variants. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the known Ser219Gly variant (rs867186) showed that homozygosity for this variant increased the risk of disease whereas heterozygosity showed no effect. Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.5 (95%CI 1.1-2.0). Fifteen rare variants were classified as qualifying and were included in collapsing analysis (burden test and SKAT-O). They did not contribute to risk. However, a Arg113Cys missense variant (rs146420040; MAF=0.004) showed an increased VTE risk (HR=1.3; 95%CI 1.0-1.9). Conclusions: Homozygosity for the Ser219Gly variant and a previously identified functional PROCR variant (Arg113Cys) was associated with VTE. Other variants did not contribute to VTE.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 565
Agostino Isca ◽  
Nader Alagha ◽  
Riccardo Andreotti ◽  
Marco Andrenacci

This paper provides an overview of recent results of a design, development and performance evaluation study of satellite gateways to receive and manage the traffic from a large population of uncoordinated user terminals. In particular, direct satellite access scenarios for machine-to-machine communications and the Internet of Things have been targeted. Tests were carried out in a representative laboratory environment emulating realistic system scenarios. Performance results, as presented in this paper indicate that the proposed gateway architecture, based on an efficient access protocol, is capable of managing a very high number of uncoordinated terminals transmitting short messages with a low duty cycle. The applicability of the proposed solution to both geostationary and non-geostationary satellite systems has also been examined. The key concept of the gateway is based on a novel receiver architecture that implements the linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) spread spectrum signal detection and successive interference cancellation techniques. The receiver uses features such as a multi-stage detector together with a robust preamble detection. The end-to-end solution includes also the use of a new waveform with a quasi-constant envelope at the terminal to modulate and transmit data packets to be received and detected by the gateway via a satellite link.

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