common carp
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100959
Asma W. Al-Thomali ◽  
Hend M. Tag ◽  
Amaal Mohammadein ◽  
Nahla S. El-Shenawy ◽  
Mohamed Salah El-Naggar

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100930
Liping Yang ◽  
Wenlei Zhang ◽  
Shaoyang Zhi ◽  
Mingyu Liu ◽  
Mengjuan Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100937
Jinghui Fang ◽  
Yue Xu ◽  
Zhijuan Nie ◽  
Gangchun Xu ◽  
Zengjie Jiang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jules Petit ◽  
Irene de Bruijn ◽  
Mark R. G. Goldman ◽  
Erik van den Brink ◽  
Wilbert F. Pellikaan ◽  

Dietary supplementation of fish with β-glucans has been commonly associated with immunomodulation and generally accepted as beneficial for fish health. However, to date the exact mechanisms of immunomodulation by β-glucan supplementation in fish have remained elusive. In mammals, a clear relation between high-fibre diets, such as those including β-glucans, and diet-induced immunomodulation via intestinal microbiota and associated metabolites has been observed. In this study, first we describe by 16S rRNA sequencing the active naive microbiota of common carp intestine. Based on the abundance of the genus Bacteroides, well known for their capacity to degrade and ferment carbohydrates, we hypothesize that common carp intestinal microbiota could ferment dietary β-glucans. Indeed, two different β-glucan preparations (curdlan and MacroGard®) were both fermented in vitro, albeit with distinct fermentation dynamics and distinct production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Second, we describe the potential immunomodulatory effects of the three dominant SCFAs (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) on head kidney leukocytes, showing effects on both nitric oxide production and expression of several cytokines (il-1b, il-6, tnfα, and il-10) in vitro. Interestingly, we also observed a regulation of expression of several gpr40L genes, which were recently described as putative SCFA receptors. Third, we describe how a single in vivo oral gavage of carp with MacroGard® modulated simultaneously, the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes (il-1b, il-6, tnfα), type I IFN-associated genes (tlr3.1, mx3), and three specific gpr40L genes. The in vivo observations provide indirect support to our in vitro data and the possible role of SCFAs in β-glucan-induced immunomodulation. We discuss how β-glucan-induced immunomodulatory effects can be explained, at least in part, by fermentation of MacroGard® by specific bacteria, part of the naive microbiota of common carp intestine, and how a subsequent production of SFCAs could possibly explain immunomodulation by β-glucan via SCFA receptors present on leukocytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
M. I. Khan ◽  
S. Hussain ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
M. Shadman ◽  

Abstract Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish’s total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.

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