tracheal stenosis
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2022 ◽  
Juan Carlos Santizo Castillo

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e41-e41
Shane C. Dickerson ◽  
Eric M. Genden ◽  
Caroline R. Gross ◽  
Sander S. Florman ◽  
Eric Franz ◽  

Mojtaba Mokhber Dezfuli ◽  
Seyed Reza Saghebi ◽  
Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr ◽  
Azizollah Abbasidezfouli

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Alessandro Ghiani ◽  
Konstantinos Tsitouras ◽  
Joanna Paderewska ◽  
Dieter Munker ◽  
Swenja Walcher ◽  

Abstract Background Various complications may arise from prolonged mechanical ventilation, but the risk of tracheal stenosis occurring late after translaryngeal intubation or tracheostomy is less common. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, type, risk factors, and management of tracheal stenoses in mechanically ventilated tracheotomized patients deemed ready for decannulation following prolonged weaning. Methods A retrospective observational study on 357 prolonged mechanically ventilated, tracheotomized patients admitted to a specialized weaning center over seven years. Flexible bronchoscopy was used to discern the type, level, and severity of tracheal stenosis in each case. We described the management of these stenoses and used a binary logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors for stenosis development. Results On admission, 272 patients (76%) had percutaneous tracheostomies, and 114 patients (32%) presented mild to moderate tracheal stenosis following weaning completion, with a median tracheal cross-section reduction of 40% (IQR 25–50). The majority of stenoses (88%) were located in the upper tracheal region, most commonly resulting from localized granulation tissue formation at the site of the internal stoma (96%). The logistic regression analysis determined that obesity (OR 2.16 [95%CI 1.29–3.63], P < 0.01), presence of a percutaneous tracheostomy (2.02 [1.12–3.66], P = 0.020), and cricothyrotomy status (5.35 [1.96–14.6], P < 0.01) were independently related to stenoses. Interventional bronchoscopy with Nd:YAG photocoagulation was a highly effective first-line treatment, with only three patients (2.6%) ultimately referred to tracheal surgery. Conclusions Tracheal stenosis is commonly observed among prolonged ventilated patients with tracheostomies, characterized by localized hypergranulation and mild to moderate airway obstruction, with interventional bronchoscopy providing satisfactory results.

Rami Zibdawi ◽  
Ryaan El-Andari ◽  
Michelle Noga ◽  
Matthew Hicks ◽  
M. Muhieldin ◽  

Umit Aydogmus ◽  
Gokhan Ozturk ◽  
Argun Kis ◽  
Yeliz Arman Karakaya ◽  
Hulya Aybek ◽  

Abstract Background TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β are important bio mediators of the inflammatory process. This experimental study has investigated inflammatory biomarkers' efficacy to determine the appropriate period for anastomosis surgery in tracheal stenosis cases. Methods First, a pilot study was performed to determine the mean stenosis ratio (SR) after the surgical anastomosis. The trial was planned on 44 rats in four groups based on the pilot study's data. Tracheal inflammation and stenosis were created in each rat by using micro scissors. In rats of groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively, tracheal resection and anastomosis surgery were applied on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th weeks after the damage. The animals were euthanized 8 weeks later, followed by histopathological assessment and analysis of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β as biochemical markers. Results Mean SR of the trachea were measured as 21.9 ± 6.0%, 24.1 ± 10.4%, 25.8 ± 9.1%, and 19.6 ± 9.2% for Groups I to IV, respectively. While Group III had the worst SR, Group IV had the best ratio (p = 0.03). Group II had the highest values for the biochemical markers tested. We observed a statistically significant correlation between only histopathological changes and TNF-α from among the biochemical markers tested (p = 0.02). It was found that high TNF-α levels were in a relationship with higher SR (p = 0.01). Conclusion Tracheal anastomosis for post-traumatic stenosis is likely to be less successful during the 4th and 6th weeks after injury. High TNF-α levels are potentially predictive of lower surgical success. These results need to be confirmed by human studies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 10-11
Geeta Choudhary ◽  
Prashant Prashant ◽  
Bharti Verma

Post intubation tracheal stenosis remains the most common indication of tracheal resection and reconstruction. It can cause respiratory symptoms that can often be misdiagnosed as obstructive lung disease. Various treatment modalities are available. As ofce-based procedures have been common, awake or mildly sedated endoscopic procedures with spontaneous ventilation are now being performed by exible bronchoscopy. We report a case involving a 45-year-old male who presented with dyspnea and stridor from 15 days. Patient had past history of intubation and icu stay one month back. After proper topicalization of upper airway of the patient, electric cauterization and balloon dilation was performed by exible bronchoscope under conscious sedation and spontaneous ventilation. Conscious sedation was achieved by graded doses of propofol and fentanyl. Post-operative period was uneventful, and patient didn’t describe any discomfort. Improvement in symptoms were reported. Endoscopic procedures for tracheal pathology under conscious sedation seems to be feasible and safe procedure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (6) ◽  
pp. E1043-E1045
Yi Zhang ◽  
Yong jun Qian

Pulmonary artery sling (PAS) is a rare congenital cardiovascular abnormality. In typical PAS patients, the left pulmonary artery (LPA) arises from the right pulmonary artery and passes between the trachea and esophagus, which possibly causes tracheal stenosis and some respiratory symptoms. PAS typically associates with other cardiovascular anomalies, which may cause difficulties to the treatment of patients. This report described a rare case of a two-month-old boy with PAS, VSD, and tracheal stenosis simultaneously and underwent procedures without tracheoplasty.

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (6) ◽  
pp. 304-309
Toshiyuki Mukai ◽  
Takao Goto ◽  
Taku Sato ◽  
Rumi Ueha ◽  
Takaharu Nito

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