respiratory symptoms
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Neval Berrin Arserim ◽  
Metin Gürçay ◽  
Ahmed Sait ◽  
Mustafa Türkdoğan

Background: In this study, partial nucleotide sequence analysis of the G gene was performed for the molecular characterization of the virus that caused the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) epidemic in Turkey in 2020. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences was performed with the virus nucleotide sequences of the epidemics seen in 2008 and 2012. These sequences were announced in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences was performed with the virus nucleotide sequences of the epidemics seen in 2008 and 2012. Methods: The study was conducted in dairy cattle holdings located in Diyarbakır Sur, Çınar and Dicle regions in South-eastern Turkey in August-November 2020. The number of animals in the holdings consisted of 750 (n=750), 150 (n=150) and 200 (n=200) cattle, respectively. Result: Severe respiratory symptoms and high mortality in the affected animals were notable symptoms. As a result of the phylogenetic analysis, it was determined that the virus that caused the epidemic in Turkey in 2020 was formed by a new variant in the Turkey-2 group, which was similar to the Indian isolates, unlike the Turkey-1 group, which was close to the Middle East variants in 2008 and 2012 isolates.

2022 ◽  
pp. 00462-2021
Heidi Andersén ◽  
Pinja Ilmarinen ◽  
Jasmin Honkamäki ◽  
Leena E Tuomisto ◽  
Hanna Hisinger-Mölkänen ◽  

BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate respiratory symptoms. A recent EAACI position paper recommended the use of an acronym, N-ERD (NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease), for this hypersensitivity associated with asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyposis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of N-ERD and identify factors associated with N-ERD.MethodsIn 2016, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random adult population of 16 000 subjects aged 20–69 years was performed in Helsinki and Western Finland. The response rate was 51.5%.ResultsThe prevalence was 1.4% for N-ERD, and 0.7% for AERD. The prevalence of N-ERD was 6.9% among subjects with asthma and 2.7% among subjects with rhinitis.The risk factors for N-ERD were older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, long-term smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants. Asthmatic subjects with N-ERD had a higher risk of respiratory symptoms, severe hypersensitivity reactions and hospitalisations than asthmatic subjects without N-ERD. The sub-phenotype of N-ERD with asthma was most symptomatic. Subjects with rhinitis associated with N-ERD, which would not be included in AERD, had the least symptoms.ConclusionWe conclude that the prevalence of N-ERD was 1.4% in a representative Finnish adult population sample. Older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, and occupational exposures increased odds of N-ERD. N-ERD was associated with significant morbidity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Shaikha Al Suwaidi ◽  
Baidaa Jasem Alakasheh ◽  
Labib S. Al-Ozaibi

High rates of thromboembolic events have been seen in cases of COVID-19. Here, we report a case of 23-year-old previously healthy female presented with left-sided abdominal pain associated with vomiting. The computed tomography scan showed multiple ill-defined wedge-shaped low attenuating areas of the spleen, suggesting splenic infarction. In the absence of other thromboembolic contributing factors, we believe this was a thromboembolic event in splenic circulation in relation to COVID-19 infection. Our case adds to the evidence of an arterial thrombotic event in a noncritical COVID-19 patient, emphasizing the importance of addressing thromboembolism diagnosis and management measures to avoid potentially deadly consequences.

2022 ◽  
Jing-Wei Yi ◽  
Peng Hou ◽  
Jin-Ling Wang ◽  
Jing Qi ◽  
Si-Yan Lin ◽  

Abstract Background: To summarize F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging features of relapsing polychondritis (RP) and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging parameters in the estimation of pulmonary function and disease activity in a cohort of RP patients with airway involvement.Methods: Thirty RP patients with respiratory symptoms who underwent PET/CT scans before corticosteroid treatment were included. Six patients underwent another post-therapeutic PET/CT scan. Imaging features were described by consensus, and FDG uptake values (SUVmax, PET FDG Burden Score (PETFBS) and PETCTindex) either for global cartilages or for the airway were calculated to correlate with clinical symptoms, pulmonary functional parameters and serological inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).Results: Laryngo-tracheo-bronchial involvement was detected by PET/CT for all patients with increased FDG uptake in 28/30 patients. The incidence of positive PET was higher in segments with wall thickening (52.68% vs. 15.48%) but was not associated with calcification or stenosis. A total of 46.7% (14/30) of patients presented with sole respiratory symptoms, while PET/CT revealed additional abnormalities in addition to laryngo-tracheo-bronchia. FDG uptake values negatively correlated with disease duration but not with fever. All FDG uptake values showed a positive correlation with FEV1/FVC, with the highest coefficient for SUVmax in the airway (rs =0.628). CRP and ESR were negatively correlated with PETFBS and PETCTindex but not with SUVmax. The largest Spearman correlation coefficient resulted in PETFBS in the airway (rs =0.67). Re-examination PET/CT in 6 patients revealed partial therapeutic response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 1).Conclusion: PET/CT is a valuable tool for assessing RP with airway involvement, especially for patients who present with sole respiratory symptoms. SUVmax and PETFBS have distinct advantages in the clinical evaluation of RP with respect to pulmonary function and disease activity.

Tahmina Parvin ◽  
Elizabeth D. Thomas ◽  
Kelly Endres ◽  
Daniel Leung ◽  
Bhuyian Sazzadul ◽  

There is limited evidence on the association between animal ownership and respiratory illness among young children in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, we examined the association between animal ownership and respiratory illness among children younger than 5 years of age enrolled in a prospective cohort study in urban Bangladesh. This prospective cohort study enrolled 884 participants younger than 5 years of age in Dhaka, Bangladesh. At baseline, trained research assistants administered caregivers of children younger than 5 years of age a questionnaire on household animal ownership. Animal ownership was defined as owning chickens, birds other than chickens, cats, and dogs. Respiratory surveillance was conducted monthly for children based on caregiver-reported coughing, rapid breathing, and difficult breathing in the past 2 weeks during the 12-month study period. At baseline, 48% of children (424 of 884) had reports of coughing, 5% (40 of 884) had difficulty breathing, 3% (25 of 884) had rapid breathing, and 49% (431 of 884) had reports of any of these three respiratory symptoms. Seventeen percent of children (151 of 884) resided in a household that owned an animal. Children residing in households reporting bird ownership had a significantly greater odds of coughing (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.28) and any of the three respiratory symptoms in the past 2 weeks (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.28). Household bird ownership was associated with respiratory illness in young children. These findings suggest that interventions aiming at reducing young children’s exposure to domestic animals should extend to include birds other than chickens.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217041
Talat Islam ◽  
Jessica Braymiller ◽  
Sandrah P Eckel ◽  
Feifei Liu ◽  
Alayna P Tackett ◽  

RationaleDespite high prevalence of e-cigarette use (vaping), little is currently known regarding the health effects of secondhand nicotine vape exposure.ObjectiveTo investigate whether exposure to secondhand nicotine vape exposure is associated with adverse respiratory health symptoms among young adults.MethodWe investigated the effect of secondhand nicotine vape exposure on annually reported wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath in the prospective Southern California Children Health Study cohort. Data were collected from study participants (n=2097) with repeated annual surveys from 2014 (average age: 17.3 years) to 2019 (average age: 21.9). We used mixed effect logistic regression to evaluate the association between secondhand nicotine vape and respiratory symptoms after controlling for relevant confounders.ResultsPrevalence of secondhand nicotine vape increased from 11.7% to 15.6% during the study period in this population. Prevalence of wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath ranged from 12.3% to 14.9%, 19.4% to 26.0% and 16.5% to 18.1%, respectively, during the study period. Associations of secondhand nicotine vape exposure with bronchitic symptoms (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and shortness of breath (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21) were observed after controlling for vaping, active and passive exposure to tobacco or cannabis, and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity and parental education). Stronger associations were observed when analysis was restricted to participants who were neither smokers nor vapers. There were no associations with wheezing after adjustment for confounders.ConclusionSecondhand nicotine vape exposure was associated with increased risk of bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath among young adults.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Seyed-Hasan Adeli ◽  
Malihe Sehat ◽  
Gholamreza Azarnia Samarin ◽  
Jamshid Vafaeimanesh ◽  
Sajjad Ahmadpour ◽  

Abstract Background Trichotillomania and trichophagia cause trichobezoars, which are masses made of hair. The main presentation of this condition is abdominal pain. However, other complications include gastric outlet obstruction, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, malnutrition, hematemesis, diarrhea, and constipation. Case presentation A 57-year-old woman with trichotillomania was admitted to the Emergency Department with the chief complaints of dyspnea on exertion, shortness of breath, dysphagia, generalized weakness, and hoarseness. Spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scan did not reveal any parenchymal lesions Pulmonary CT angiography did not reveal pulmonary embolism. The patient was admitted to the Surgery Department for hand fasciotomy due to contrast leakage, and during laryngoscopy, a trichobezoar was detected that was removed with Magill forceps. Conclusions Rare cases of trichobezoars can be observed in humans with gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Precise and timely diagnosis are key for the prevention of more invasive diagnostic procedures.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Francisco Mera Cordero ◽  
Sara Bonet Monne ◽  
Jesús Almeda Ortega ◽  
Ana García-Sangenís ◽  
Oriol Cunillera Puèrtolas ◽  

Abstract Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect the globe. After 18 months of the SARS-CoV-2 emergence, clinicians have clearly defined a subgroup of patients with lasting, disabling symptoms. While big strides have been made in understanding the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the pathophysiology of long COVID is still largely unknown, and evidence-based, effective treatments for this condition remain unavailable. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of 10 mg oral montelukast every 24 h versus placebo in improving quality of life associated with mild to moderate respiratory symptoms in patients with long COVID as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire. The secondary objectives will evaluate the effect of montelukast versus placebo on improving exercise capacity, COVID-19 symptoms (asthenia, headache, mental confusion or brain fog, ageusia, and anosmia), oxygen desaturation during exertion, functional status, and mortality. Methods and analysis Phase III, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. We will include 18- to 80-year-old patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild to moderate respiratory symptoms lasting more than 4 weeks. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (experimental treatment with 10 mg/day montelukast) or the control group (placebo group), during a 28-day treatment. Follow-up will finish 56 days after the start of treatment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life associated with respiratory symptoms according to the COPD Assessment Test 4 weeks after starting the treatment. The following are the secondary outcomes: (a) exercise capacity and oxygen saturation (1-min sit-to-stand test); (b) Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale; (c) other symptoms: asthenia, headache, mental confusion (brain fog), ageusia, and anosmia (Likert scale); (d) use of healthcare resources; (e) mortality; (f) sick leave duration in days; and (g) side effects of montelukast. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the IDIAPJGol (reference number 21/091-C). The trial results will be published in open access, peer-reviewed journals and explained in webinars to increase awareness and understanding about long COVID among primary health professionals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT04695704. Registered on January 5, 2021. EudraCT number 2021-000605-24. Prospectively registered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-11
Ravi Shrivastava ◽  
Rémi Shrivastava ◽  
Nathalie Maneby ◽  
Gilles Giroir ◽  
Marjorie Georges ◽  

Background: Pollution induced allergic rhinitis and respiratory symptoms is becoming a major health problem in the world for which still there is no safe and preventive treatment. Objectives: Conceive and evaluate the allergen preventive properties and clinical efficacy of an osmotic, polymeric, stable filmogen spray, called PCNS. Materials and Methods: Amb A 1 (ragweed), Der P 1 and 2 (dust mite), Bet v 1 (birch), Alt a 1 (Alternaria, fungus), and Fel d 1 (cat dander) allergens were exposed at a concentration of 5µg/ml (20 µl per tube) on the polymeric test product film (120 and 240µl layer) and the allergens crossing the barrier were quantified in the agar gel beneath the film. 0.40% HPMC and PBS solutions, tested identically, served as controls. Clinical efficacy of PCNS nasal spray was evaluated in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or respiratory symptoms (29 in test product v/s 15 in saline controls) for 22 days. Nasal, ocular, respiratory symptoms and Rhino conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were measured. Statistical analyses: The normality of the populations was determined by the Shapiro-Wilk test, then statistical analysis was performed by two-tailed Student’s test for comparisons between two groups and the two-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Bonferroni’s test for comparisons of multiple groups. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analyses were performed with the software GraphPad Prism (version 8.4.2, La Jolla, USA). NS indicates not significant. Results: PCNS polymeric spray blocked the diffusion of all the allergens while 0.40% HPMC was able to prevent diffusion of only Alt a 1 and Fel d 1 allergens. Mean reflective total nasal symptom scores (rTNSS), reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS), and respiratory symptoms including effect on wheezing, cough, dyspnea, and chest tightness were moderately improved in the control saline group, but the improvements were nearly twice better in the PCNS group. RQLQ was improved by 23% in saline spray v/s 46% PCNS group. 4/15 patients in saline group v/s 1/29 in PCNS group required rescue medication during the study. PCNS was highly effective in reducing allergen and pollution induced respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: a polymeric, osmotic, and stable nasal barrier against pollutants and allergens represents an innovative approach against pollution induced respiratory symptoms.

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