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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. G. Gomes ◽  
M. B. Stocco ◽  
N. P. de Sousa ◽  
A. C. Martini ◽  
T. O. Morgado ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate whether skeletal development of the Pantanal Caiman (Caiman yacare) is similarly influenced by temperature variation and controlled increases in embryo motility. All eggs were incubated at 90% humidity and 29 °C for the first 45 days. Thereafter, the incubation temperature was either maintained at 29 °C and embryos were treated with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on days 46, 47, 48, and 49 (Group I, 29 °C 4-AP, n = 15); maintained at 29 °C (n = 14; Group II); or at 33 °C (n = 14, Group III). Embryonic movement was measured using an Egg Buddy® digital monitor on days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 60, at which point embryos were euthanized and samples were collected for analysis. No differences were observed between groups with varying incubation temperatures. In contrast, embryonic motility was greater in embryos treated with 4-AP (P < 0.001) on day 49, and this was associated with higher proportions of snout-vent and hand lengths. This study demonstrates for the first time that pharmacologically induced increases in embryo motility result in phenotypic changes to the proportion of elements during prenatal ontogeny, thereby effectively altering the adaptation of the species to specific environments.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
B. Khan ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
M.A. Khan ◽  
A. Amin ◽  
M. Iqbal ◽  

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine syndrome characterized by high blood glucose levels due to abrogated insulin activity. The existing treatments for DM have side effects and varying degrees of efficacy. Therefore, it is paramount that novel approaches be developed to enhance the management of DM. Therapeutic plants have been accredited as having comparatively high efficacy with fewer adverse effects. The current study aims to elucidate the phytochemical profile, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-diabetic effects of methanolic extract D. salicifolia (leaves) in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Alloxan was injected intraperitoneally (150 mg kg-1, b.w), to induced diabetes in mice. The mice were divided into three groups (n=10). Group 1 (normal control) received normal food and purified water, Group II (diabetic control) received regular feed and clean water and group III (diabetic treated) received a methanolic extract of the plant (300 mg kg-1) for 28 days with a typical diet and clean water throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected to checked serum glucose and concentration of LDL, TC, TG. The extract demonstrated significant antihyperglycemic activity (P<0.05), whereas improvements in mice's body weight and lipid profiles were observed after treatment with the extract. This study establishes that the extract has high efficacy with comparatively less toxicity that can be used for DM management.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 253
Vladimir G. Dubrovskii

Selective area growth (SAG) of III-V nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and related epitaxy techniques offer several advantages over growth on unpatterned substrates. Here, an analytic model for the total flux of group III atoms impinging NWs is presented, which accounts for specular re-emission from the mask surface and the shadowing effect in the absence of surface diffusion from the substrate. An expression is given for the shadowing length of NWs corresponding to the full shadowing of the mask. Axial and radial NW growths are considered in different stages, including the stage of purely axial growth, intermediate stage with radial growth, and asymptotic stage, where the NWs receive the maximum flux determined by the array pitch. The model provides good fits with the data obtained for different vapor–liquid–solid and catalyst-free III-V NWs.

Alireza Baradaran ◽  
Mehdi Ghaffarian

Abstract Using the tight-binding model and density functional theory, the topological invariant of the two-dimensional (2D) group III-V and IV-IV compounds are studied in the absence and the presence of an external perpendicular electric field and spin-orbit coupling. It will be recognized that a critical value of these parameters changes the topological invariant of 2D graphene-like compounds. The significant effects of an external electric field and spin-orbit coupling are considered to the two-center overlap integrals of the Slater-Koster model involved in band structures, changing band-gap, and tuning the topological phase transition between ordinary and quantum spin Hall regime. These declare the good consistency between two theories: tight-binding and density functional. So, this study reveals topological phase transition in these materials. Our finding paves a way to extend an effective Hamiltonian, and may instantly clear some computation aspects of the study in the field of spintronic based on the first-principles methods.

2022 ◽  
Kavitha Krishnappa ◽  

Abstract Ageing is a complex biological process of all flora and fauna. It leads to a gradual reduction in the ability to maintain homeostasis under internal physiological and external environmental stresses, hence reducing the viability of individual's and increasing their vulnerability to diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the alteration in the oxidant /antioxidant balance and hematology in four different age group of indigenous Tharparkar cattle and its amelioration by ascorbic acid. A total 24 female Tharparkar cattle were included and were categorized into 4 groups of six cows in each group. Animals below 1 year-age were kept in group I, between 1 to 8 year-age in group II, between 8-10 year-age in group III and above 10 year-age in group IV. The oxidant/antioxidant markers (LPO, SOD, GSH, GPX and catalase activity) and haematological panels (Hb, TEC, TLC, Platelet and DLC) were determined on day 0, before ascorbic acid supplementation, and on day 6, 12, 18 and 24 post ascorbic acid supplementation. In the present study LPO and SOD levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the ageing. GSH and GPX activities significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with ageing in different age groups. Variations in hematological parameters were also observed with ageing in different age groups. The geriatric cattle (> 10 years) exhibited remarkable alteration in oxidative stress indices, and haematological panels when compared to other groups. Supplementation of ascorbic acid reduced the oxidative stress and improved hemoglobin, PCV, TEC and TLC levels. From the findings of this study, it can be inferred that administration of ascorbic acid is helpful in ameliorating altered oxidant/antioxidant balance and hematological parameters with ageing in various age groups of cattle.

Amirhossein Danafar ◽  
Arezoo Khoradmehr ◽  
Mahya Hosseini Bondarabadi ◽  
Fahime Mazaheri ◽  
Amin Tamadon ◽  

Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are widely used in many compounds. Recent evidence has displayed some cytotoxic effects of TiO2NPs on male reproduction. Objective: The effects of TiO2NP administration on sperm parameters and chromatin and seminiferous histopathology of male mice were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 NMRI male mice (35 ± 3 gr, 8-12-week-old) were divided into four groups (n = 8/each): treated groups were fed orally with 2.5 (group I), 5 (group II) and 10 (group III) mg/kg/day TiO2NPs for 40 days and the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were assessed using chromomycin A3, aniline blue, toluidine blue staining and TUNEL. Hematoxylin eosin staining was performed to measure spermatogenic cells and the total diameter of seminiferous tubules. Also, sex hormone and malondyaldehyde levels were measured. Results: Abnormal sperm tails rose in group III (28.87 ± 4.91) in comparison with the control group (12.75 ± 3.95). However, chromomycin A3 staining and TUNEL showed higher levels in group III in comparison with the control group, whereas aniline blue and toluidine blue staining showed no differences. A significantly lower spermatogenesis index and lumen parameters were observed in group III. Leydig cell numbers, cellular diameters and the area of the seminiferous tubules were lower in the treated groups. The testosterone level was also lower in these groups and the percentage of malondyaldehyde in the seminal fluid was higher. Conclusion: Exact mechanisms of TiO2NPs are not clear; however, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO2NPs may relate to oxidative stress. Given their widespread use, TiO2NPs should be a public health focus of attention. Key words: Titanium dioxide, Spermatogenesis, Histology, Mouse, Chromatin, TUNEL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Dhanabalakrishnan Kovilpalayam Palaniswamy ◽  
Pandiyan Arumugan ◽  
Ravindiran Munusami ◽  
A Chinnasamy ◽  
S. Madhu ◽  

InSb the group III-V semiconductor with narrow band gap is combined with Mn in various concentrations and that InSb–Mn alloy is doped with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). The optical properties and electronic structure of ternary InSb–Mn alloy with PMMA are investigated by first principles calculations using the DFT method. Varying Mn concentrations play an important role in the improvement of the absorption coefficient and optical conductivity. It is observed that the band gap of InSb–Mn: PMMA decreases monotonously with the increase in Mn concentration. Optical properties of InSb–Mn: PMMA, such as the optical absorption coefficient and optical conductivity, are greater than those of pure InSb. InSb–Mn: PMMA alloy is doped with PMMA polymer in order to make a thin film as PMMA is a transparent thermoplastic polymer. These results suggest a promising application of InSb–Mn: PMMA thin film in optoelectronics when the InSb doping is 24% with improved conductivity when compared with other doping ratios. This states the optimum doping ratio and the major finding in the carried out research based on modelling and simulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 185-197
F.G. Eabasha ◽  
K.K Al- Awadi

Twelve horses were divided into three equal groups. Group I animals were inoculated orally with (3.7 X1012)CFU of a highly virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium 3,;a_r cop§_n__hagen. Group 11 animals were inoculated orally with 2 doses of Salmonella and then challenged with a high dose. Group III horses, served as non - infected control. ‘ The main lesions were primarily confined to the digestive tract and were characterized by catarrhal enteritis. Pseudornembrane covered the mucosa of the ileum at the ileo — cecal Valve region. Histopathological examination revealed marked rnononuclear cellular infiltration in the lamina propria and occasionally necrosis and edema in the mucosa and submucosa of the intestine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 754
Inês M. Portinha ◽  
François P. Douillard ◽  
Hannu Korkeala ◽  
Miia Lindström

Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin that causes botulism, a rare but potentially lethal paralysis. Endospores play an important role in the survival, transmission, and pathogenesis of C. botulinum. C. botulinum strains are very diverse, both genetically and ecologically. Group I strains are terrestrial, mesophilic, and produce highly heat-resistant spores, while Group II strains can be terrestrial (type B) or aquatic (type E) and are generally psychrotrophic and produce spores of moderate heat resistance. Group III strains are either terrestrial or aquatic, mesophilic or slightly thermophilic, and the heat resistance properties of their spores are poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed the sporulation dynamics in population, spore morphology, and other spore properties of 10 C. botulinum strains belonging to Groups I–III. We propose two distinct sporulation strategies used by C. botulinum Groups I–III strains, report their spore properties, and suggest a putative role for the exosporium in conferring high heat resistance. Strains within each physiological group produced spores with similar characteristics, likely reflecting adaptation to respective environmental habitats. Our work provides new information on the spores and on the population and single-cell level strategies in the sporulation of C. botulinum.

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