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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Romina Chitsaz ◽  
Atefeh Zarezadeh ◽  
Jinous Asgarpanah ◽  
Parvaneh Najafizadeh ◽  
Zahra Mousavi

Abstract: Rubiadin is identified as a bioactive anthraquinone that exists in some quinone rich plants. The current research was carried out to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory impact of Rubiadin in acute and chronic inflammation test models in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin was examined in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced edema as chronic and acute inflammation models in rats. TNF-α level and histopathological changes were assessed using sampled foot tissue of rat in the acute model. Also, the IL-1β level was assessed in the chronic model. One-way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey’s) analysis was used for comparing the groups. Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a significant reduction in TNF α level and the paw edema compared to the control group in carrageenan test. Also, it was observed that the anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) is comparable to mefenamic acid (30 mg/kg, i.p.) as the standard drug. Rubiadin was effective in granuloma induced by cotton pellet concerning the granuloma and transudate formation amount. Rubiadin’s anti-inflammatory effects were associated with a significant IL-1β decrease in this model. The results suggest that Rubiadin as a natural compound can possess significant peripheral anti-inflammatory impacts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangyu Fan ◽  
Zichen Liu ◽  
Zhibin Wan ◽  
Hanlu Zou ◽  
Mengzhi Ji ◽  

BackgroundInduced by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. As a special virus, prophage is domesticated by its host and are major contributors to virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity. The function of prophages and their genes in M. tuberculosis is still unknown.MethodsRv2650c is a prophage gene in M. tuberculosis genome. We constructed recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) to observe bacteria morphology and analyze the resistance to various adverse environments. Recombinant and control strains were used to infect macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, we performed ELISA experiments of infected macrophages.ResultsRv2650c affected the spread of colonies of M. smegmatis and enhanced the resistance of M. smegmatis to macrophages and various stress agents such as acid, oxidative stress, and surfactant. ELISA experiments revealed that the Rv2650c can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the prophage gene Rv2650c can inhibit the spread of colonies and the expression of inflammatory factors and promote intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. These results build the foundation for the discovery of virulence factors of M. tuberculosis, and provide novel insights into the function of the prophage in Mycobacterium.

2022 ◽  
Charalampos Papadopoulos ◽  
Eleftheria Spourita ◽  
Konstantinos Mimidis ◽  
George Kolios ◽  
Ioannis Tentes ◽  

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) constitutes a significant cause of deaths, liver transplantations and economic costs worldwide. Despite extended research, investigations on the role of erythrocytes are scarce. Red blood cells from experimental animals and human patients with NASH, present phosphatidylserine exposure which is then recognized by Kupffer cells. This event leads to erythrophagocytosis, and amplification of inflammation through iron disposition. In addition, it has been shown that erythrocytes from NASH patients release the chemokine MCP1, leading to increased TNF-α release from macrophages RAW 264.7. However, erythrophagocytosis can also be caused by reduced CD47 levels. In addition, increased MCP1 release could be either signal-induced, or caused by higher MCP1 levels on the erythrocyte membrane. Finally, erythrocyte efferocytosis could provide additional inflammatory metabolites. In this study, we measured the erythrocyte membrane levels of CD47 and MCP1 by ELISA, and cholesterol and sphingosine with thin-layer chromatography. 18 patients (8 men, 10 women aged 56.7+/-11.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (7 men, 7 women aged 39.3+/-15.5 years) participated in our study. The erythrocyte CD47 levels were decreased in the erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients (844+/-409 pg/ml) compared to healthy controls (2969+/-1936 pg/ml) with P(Healthy>NAFLD)=99.1%, while the levels of MCP1 were increased in NASH patients (389+/-255 pg/ml), compared to healthy controls (230+/-117 pg/ml) with P(Healthy<NAFLD)=88.9%. Moreover, in erythrocyte membranes there was a statistically significant accumulation of sphingosine and cholesterol in NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. Our results imply that erythrocytes release chemotactic (find me signals) MCP1, while containing reduced (do not eat me signals) CD47. These molecules can lead to erythrophagocytosis. Next, increased (goodbye signals) sphingosine and cholesterol could augment inflammation by metabolic reprogramming.

2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Jing Yang ◽  
Xujiao Tang ◽  
Qingqing Wu ◽  
Panpan Ren ◽  
Yishu Yan

To develop a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) model transited from mild symptoms, we investigated a “two-hit” strategy with L-arginine in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with ice-cold L-arginine (4 g/kg) twice at an interval of 1 h on the first day and subjected to the repeated operation 72 h afterwards. The results showed the “two-hit” strategy resulted in the destructive damage and extensive necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas compared with the “one-hit” model. Meanwhile, excessive levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely IL-6 and TNF-α, were released in the serum. Remarkably, additional deleterious effects on multiple organs were observed, including high intestinal permeability, kidney injury, and severe acute lung injury. Therefore, we confirmed that the SAP animal model triggered by a “two-hit” strategy with L-arginine was successfully established, providing a solid foundation for a deeper understanding of SAP initiation and therapy research to prevent worsening of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 921
Shang-Hung Lin ◽  
Ji-Chen Ho ◽  
Sung-Chou Li ◽  
Yu-Wen Cheng ◽  
Chung-Yuan Hsu ◽  

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) results from joint destruction by osteoclasts. The promising efficacy of TNF-α blockage indicates its important role in osteoclastogenesis of PsA. WNT ligands actively regulate osteoclastogenesis. We investigated how WNT ligands activate osteoclasts amid the TNF-α milieu in PsA. We first profiled the expression of WNT ligands in CD14+ monocyte-derived osteoclasts (MDOC) from five PsA patients and five healthy controls (HC) and then validated the candidate WNT ligands in 32 PsA patients and 16 HC. Through RNA interference against WNT ligands in MDOC, we determined the mechanisms by which TNF-α exerts its effects on osteclastogenesis or chemotaxis. WNT5A was selectively upregulated by TNF-α in MDOC from PsA patients. The number of CD68+WNT5A+ osteoclasts increased in PsA joints. CXCL1, CXCL16, and MCP-1 was selectively increased in supernatants of MDOC from PsA patients. RNA interference against WNT5A abolished the increased MCP-1 from MDOC and THP-1-cell-derived osteoclasts. The increased migration of osteoclast precursors (OCP) induced by supernatant from PsA MDOC was abolished by the MCP-1 neutralizing antibody. WNT5A and MCP-1 expressions were decreased in MDOC from PsA patients treated by biologics against TNF-α but not IL-17. We conclude that TNF-α recruits OCP by increased MCP-1 production but does not directly activate osteoclastogenesis in PsA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fang Dong ◽  
Fangfei Xiao ◽  
Xiaolu Li ◽  
Youran Li ◽  
Xufei Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Compelling evidences demonstrated that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Therapies for targeting the microbiota may provide alternative options for the treatment of IBD, such as probiotics. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of a probiotic strain, Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) CECT 8330, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 (5 × 108 CFU/day) once daily by gavage for 5 days prior to or 2 days after colitis induction by DSS. Weight, fecal conditions, colon length and histopathological changes were examined. ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to determine the cytokines and regulatory T cells (Treg) ratio. Western blot was used to examine the tight junction proteins (TJP) in colonic tissues. Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels and microbiota composition were analyzed by targeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG) pathway analysis were used to predict the microbial functional profiles. Results P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 treatment protected DSS-induced colitis in mice as evidenced by reducing the weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histological damage, and colon length shortening. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and increased level of IL-10 in DSS treated mice. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 upregulated the expression of ZO-1, Occludin and the ratio of Treg cells in colon tissue. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 increased the fecal SCFAs level and relative abundances of several protective bacteria genera, including norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Dubosiella. Furthermore, the increased abundances of bacteria genera were positively correlated with IL-10 and SCFAs levels, and negatively associated with IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, respectively. The KEGG and COG pathway analysis revealed that P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 could partially recover the metabolic pathways altered by DSS. Conclusions P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 administration protects the DSS-induced colitis and modulates the gut microbial composition and function, immunological profiles, and the gut barrier function. Therefore, P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 may serve as a promising probiotic to ameliorate intestinal inflammation.

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