data centers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Andrew M. Keller ◽  
Michael J. Wirthlin

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are used in large numbers in data centers around the world. They are used for cloud computing and computer networking. The most common type of FPGA used in data centers are re-programmable SRAM-based FPGAs. These devices offer potential performance and power consumption savings. A single device also carries a small susceptibility to radiation-induced soft errors, which can lead to unexpected behavior. This article examines the impact of terrestrial radiation on FPGAs in data centers. Results from artificial fault injection and accelerated radiation testing on several data-center-like FPGA applications are compared. A new fault injection scheme provides results that are more similar to radiation testing. Silent data corruption (SDC) is the most commonly observed failure mode followed by FPGA unavailable and host unresponsive. A hypothetical deployment of 100,000 FPGAs in Denver, Colorado, will experience upsets in configuration memory every half-hour on average and SDC failures every 0.5–11 days on average.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Philippos Papaphilippou ◽  
Jiuxi Meng ◽  
Nadeen Gebara ◽  
Wayne Luk

We present Hipernetch, a novel FPGA-based design for performing high-bandwidth network switching. FPGAs have recently become more popular in data centers due to their promising capabilities for a wide range of applications. With the recent surge in transceiver bandwidth, they could further benefit the implementation and refinement of network switches used in data centers. Hipernetch replaces the crossbar with a “combined parallel round-robin arbiter”. Unlike a crossbar, the combined parallel round-robin arbiter is easy to pipeline, and does not require centralised iterative scheduling algorithms that try to fit too many steps in a single or a few FPGA cycles. The result is a network switch implementation on FPGAs operating at a high frequency and with a low port-to-port latency. Our proposed Hipernetch architecture additionally provides a competitive switching performance approaching output-queued crossbar switches. Our implemented Hipernetch designs exhibit a throughput that exceeds 100 Gbps per port for switches of up to 16 ports, reaching an aggregate throughput of around 1.7 Tbps.

2022 ◽  
Vol 205 ◽  
pp. 107760
Caishan Guo ◽  
Fengji Luo ◽  
Zexiang Cai ◽  
Zhao Yang Dong

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 303-314
Hui Liu ◽  
AbdusSalam Aljbri ◽  
Jie Song ◽  
Jinqing Jiang ◽  
Chun Hua

2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 118496
Junjie Zhao ◽  
Huawei Chang ◽  
Xiaobing Luo ◽  
Zhengkai Tu ◽  
Siew Hwa Chan

Raghi K.R K R

Cloud computing data centers are growing rapidly in both number and capacity to meet the increasing demands for highly-responsive computing and massive storage. Such data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy resulting in high operating costs and carbon dioxide emissions. The reason for this extremely high energy consumption is not just the quantity of computing resources and the power inefficiency of hardware, but rather lies in the inefficient usage of these resources. Virtual Machine [VM] consolidation involves live migration of VMs hence the capability of transferring a VM between physical servers with a close to zero down time. It is an effective way to improve the utilization of resources and increase energy efficiency in cloud data centers. VM consolidation consists of host overload/under load detection, VM selection and VM placement. In Our Proposed Model We are going to use Roulette-Wheel Selection Strategy, Where the VM selects the Instance type and Physical Machine [PM] using Roulette-Wheel Selection Mechanism Keywords—searchable encryption, dynamic update, cloud computing

2022 ◽  
Arezoo Ghasemi ◽  
Abolfazl Toroghi Haghighat ◽  
Amin Keshavarzi

Abstract The process of mapping Virtual Machines (VMs) to Physical Ma- chines (PMs), which is defined as VM placement, affects Cloud Data Centers (DCs) performance. To enhance the performance, optimal placement of VMs regarding conflicting objectives has been proposed in some research, such as Multi-Objective VM reBalance (MOVMrB) and Reinforcement Learning VM reBalance (RLVMrB) in recent years. The MOVMrB algorithm is based on the BBO meta-heuristic algorithm and the RLVMrB algorithm inspired by reinforcement learning, which in both of them the non-dominance method is used to evaluate generated solutions. Although this approach reaches accept- able results, it fails to consider other solutions which are optimal regarding all objectives, when it meets the best solution based on one of these objectives. In this paper, we propose two enhanced multi-objective algorithms, Fuzzy- RLVMrB and Fuzzy-MOVMrB, that are able to consider all objectives when evaluating candidate solutions in solution space. All four algorithms aim to balance the load between VMs in terms of processor, bandwidth, and memory as well as horizontal and vertical load balance. We simulated all algorithms using the CloudSim simulator and compared them in terms of horizontal and vertical load balance and execution time. The simulation results show that Fuzzy-RLVMrB and Fuzzy-MOVMrB algorithms outperform RLVMrB and MOVMrB algorithms in terms of vertical load balancing and horizontal load balancing. Also, the RLVMrB and Fuzzy-RLVMrB algorithms are better in execution time than the MOVMrB and Fuzzy-MOVMrB algorithms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 117816
Ranjith Kandasamy ◽  
Jin Yao Ho ◽  
Pengfei Liu ◽  
Teck Neng Wong ◽  
Kok Chuan Toh ◽  

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