programmable gate arrays
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Andrew M. Keller ◽  
Michael J. Wirthlin

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are used in large numbers in data centers around the world. They are used for cloud computing and computer networking. The most common type of FPGA used in data centers are re-programmable SRAM-based FPGAs. These devices offer potential performance and power consumption savings. A single device also carries a small susceptibility to radiation-induced soft errors, which can lead to unexpected behavior. This article examines the impact of terrestrial radiation on FPGAs in data centers. Results from artificial fault injection and accelerated radiation testing on several data-center-like FPGA applications are compared. A new fault injection scheme provides results that are more similar to radiation testing. Silent data corruption (SDC) is the most commonly observed failure mode followed by FPGA unavailable and host unresponsive. A hypothetical deployment of 100,000 FPGAs in Denver, Colorado, will experience upsets in configuration memory every half-hour on average and SDC failures every 0.5–11 days on average.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Tom Hogervorst ◽  
Răzvan Nane ◽  
Giacomo Marchiori ◽  
Tong Dong Qiu ◽  
Markus Blatt ◽  

Scientific computing is at the core of many High-Performance Computing applications, including computational flow dynamics. Because of the utmost importance to simulate increasingly larger computational models, hardware acceleration is receiving increased attention due to its potential to maximize the performance of scientific computing. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays could accelerate scientific computing because of the possibility to fully customize the memory hierarchy important in irregular applications such as iterative linear solvers. In this article, we study the potential of using Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in High-Performance Computing because of the rapid advances in reconfigurable hardware, such as the increase in on-chip memory size, increasing number of logic cells, and the integration of High-Bandwidth Memories on board. To perform this study, we propose a novel Sparse Matrix-Vector multiplication unit and an ILU0 preconditioner tightly integrated with a BiCGStab solver kernel. We integrate the developed preconditioned iterative solver in Flow from the Open Porous Media project, a state-of-the-art open source reservoir simulator. Finally, we perform a thorough evaluation of the FPGA solver kernel in both stand-alone mode and integrated in the reservoir simulator, using the NORNE field, a real-world case reservoir model using a grid with more than 10 5 cells and using three unknowns per cell.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Mahabub Hasan Mahalat ◽  
Suraj Mandal ◽  
Anindan Mondal ◽  
Bibhash Sen ◽  
Rajat Subhra Chakraborty

Secure authentication of any Internet-of-Things (IoT) device becomes the utmost necessity due to the lack of specifically designed IoT standards and intrinsic vulnerabilities with limited resources and heterogeneous technologies. Despite the suitability of arbiter physically unclonable function (APUF) among other PUF variants for the IoT applications, implementing it on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is challenging. This work presents the complete characterization of the path changing switch (PCS) 1 based APUF on two different families of FPGA, like Spartan-3E (90 nm CMOS) and Artix-7 (28 nm CMOS). A comprehensive study of the existing tuning concept for programmable delay logic (PDL) based APUF implemented on FPGA is presented, leading to establishment of its practical infeasibility. We investigate the entropy, randomness properties of the PCS based APUF suitable for practical applications, and the effect of temperature variation signifying the adequate tolerance against environmental variation. The XOR composition of PCS based APUF is introduced to boost performance and security. The robustness of the PCS based APUF against machine learning based modeling attack is evaluated, showing similar characteristics as the conventional APUF. Experimental results validate the efficacy of PCS based APUF with a little hardware footprint removing the paucity of lightweight security primitive for IoT.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Eli Cahill ◽  
Brad Hutchings ◽  
Jeffrey Goeders

Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are widely used for custom hardware implementations, including in many security-sensitive industries, such as defense, communications, transportation, medical, and more. Compiling source hardware descriptions to FPGA bitstreams requires the use of complex computer-aided design (CAD) tools. These tools are typically proprietary and closed-source, and it is not possible to easily determine that the produced bitstream is equivalent to the source design. In this work, we present various FPGA design flows that leverage pre-synthesizing or pre-implementing parts of the design, combined with open-source synthesis tools, bitstream-to-netlist tools, and commercial equivalence-checking tools, to verify that a produced hardware design is equivalent to the designer’s source design. We evaluate these different design flows on several benchmark circuits and demonstrate that they are effective at detecting malicious modifications made to the design during compilation. We compare our proposed design flows with baseline commercial design flows and measure the overheads to area and runtime.

Zixin Liu ◽  
Zhibo Wang ◽  
Mingxing Ling

Side-channel attack (SCA) based on machine learning has proved to be a valid technique in cybersecurity, especially subjecting to the symmetric-key crypto implementations in serial operation. At the same time, parallel-encryption computing based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) grows into a new influencer, but the attack results using machine learning are exiguous. Research on the traditional SCA has been mostly restricted to pre-processing: Signal Noisy Ratio (SNR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), etc. In this work, firstly, we propose to replace Points of Interests (POIs) and dimensionality reduction by utilizing word embedding, which converts power traces into sensitive vectors. Secondly, we combined sensitive vectors with Long Short Term Memories (LSTM) to execute SCA based on FPGA crypto-implementations. In addition, compared with traditional Template Attack (TA), Multiple Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The result shows that the proposed model can not only reduce the manual operation, such as parametric assumptions and dimensionality setting, which limits their range of application, but improve the effectiveness of side-channel attacks as well.

Hadise Ramezani ◽  
Majid Mohammadi ◽  
Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini

The approximate computing is an alternative computing approach which can lead to high-performance implementation of audio and image processing as well as deep learning applications. However, most of the available approximate adders have been designed using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and they would not result in an efficient implementation on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, we have designed a new approximate adder customized for efficient implementation on FPGAs, and then it has been used to build the Gaussian filter. The experimental results of the implementation of Gaussian filter based on the proposed approximate adder on a Virtex-7 FPGA, indicated that the resource utilization has decreased by 20-51%, and the designed filter delay based on the modified design methodology for building approximate adders for FPGA-based systems (MDeMAS) adder has improved 10-35%, due to the obtained output quality.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Raouf Senhadji-Navarro ◽  
Ignacio Garcia-Vargas

Current Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) provide fast routing links and special logic to perform carry operations; however, these resources can also be used to implement non-arithmetic circuits. In this paper, a new approach for mapping logic functions onto carry chains is presented. Unlike other approaches, the proposed technique can be applied to any logic function. The presented technique includes: (1) an architecture that is composed of blocks that implement AND and OR functions (called CANDs and CORs, respectively) by means of Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) and carry-chain resources; and (2) a mapping algorithm to reduce both the delay of the critical path and the number of used FPGA resources. The algorithm uses a heuristic to interconnect CORs and CANDs in order to reduce the delay. The problem of mapping the maxterms (or minterms) of a function to LUTs has been modelled as a Set Bin Packing (SBP) problem. Since SBP is NP-Hard, a greedy algorithm has been proposed, which is based on the First Fit Decreasing (FFD) heuristic. The results obtained have been compared with the conventional technique using both speed and area optimization. For this purpose, a large synthetic set of test cases has been generated. The proposed technique improves both the speed and area results for the vast majority of functions whose conventional implementation requires more than four logic levels. It is important to highlight that the improvement of one parameter (speed or area) is not achieved at the expense of the other.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8347
Thanikodi Manoj Kumar ◽  
Kavitha Rani Balmuri ◽  
Adam Marchewka ◽  
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari ◽  
Srinivas Konda

Nowadays, a large number of digital data are transmitted worldwide using wireless communications. Therefore, data security is a significant task in communication to prevent cybercrimes and avoid information loss. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a highly efficient secure mechanism that outperforms other symmetric key cryptographic algorithms using message secrecy. However, AES is efficient in terms of software and hardware implementation, and numerous modifications are done in the conventional AES architecture to improve the performance. This research article proposes a significant modification to the AES architecture’s key expansion section to increase the speed of producing subkeys. The fork–join model of key expansion (FJMKE) architecture is developed to improve the speed of the subkey generation process, whereas the hardware resources of AES are minimized by avoiding the frequent computation of secret keys. The AES-FJMKE architecture generates all of the required subkeys in less than half the time required by the conventional architecture. The proposed AES-FJMKE architecture is designed and simulated using the Xilinx ISE 5.1 software. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) behaviour of the AES-FJMKE architecture is analysed by means of performance count for hardware resources, delay, and operating frequency. The existing AES architectures such as typical AES, AES-PNSG, AES-AT, AES-BE, ISAES, AES-RS, and AES-MPPRM are used to evaluate the efficiency of AES-FJMKE. The AES-FJMKE implemented using Spartan 6 FPGA used fewer slices (i.e., 76) than the AES-RS.

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