Fusion Reactors
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Svetlana Ratynskaia ◽  
Ladislas Vignitchouk ◽  
Panagiotis Tolias

Abstract The design, licensing and operation of magnetic confinement fusion reactors impose various limitations on the amount of metallic dust particles residing inside the plasma chamber. In this context, predictive studies of dust production and migration constitute one of the main sources of relevant data. These are mainly conducted using dust transport codes, which rely on coupled dust-plasma and dust-wall interaction models, and require external input on the dust and droplet initial conditions. Some particularities of dust modelling in reactor-relevant conditions are analyzed with an emphasis on dust generation mechanisms relevant for disruption scenarios and on dust remobilization mechanisms relevant for ramp-up scenarios. Emerging topics such as dust production by runaway electron impact and pre-plasma remobilization of magnetic dust are also discussed.

Wei Zhang ◽  
Zhiwei Ma ◽  
Haowei Zhang ◽  
Xin Wang

Abstract The sawtooth-like oscillations resulting from the m/n=2/1 double tearing mode (DTM) are numerically investigated through the three-dimensional, toroidal, nonlinear resistive-MHD code (CLT). We find that the nonlinear evolution of the m/n=2/1 DTM can lead to sawtooth-like oscillations, which are similar to those driven by the kink mode. The perpendicular thermal conductivity and the external heating rate can significantly alter the behaviors of the DTM driven sawtooth-like oscillations. With a high perpendicular thermal conductivity, the system quickly evolves into a steady state with m/n=2/1 magnetic islands and helical flow. However, with a low perpendicular thermal conductivity, the system tends to exhibit sawtooth-like oscillations. With a sufficiently high or low heating rate, the system exhibits sawtooth-like oscillations, while with an intermediate heating rate, the system quickly evolves into a steady state. At the steady state, there exist the non-axisymmetric magnetic field and strong radial flow, and both are with helicity of m/n=2/1. Like the steady state with m/n=1/1 radial flow, which is beneficial for preventing the Helium ash accumulation in the core, the steady state with m/n=2/1 radial flow might also be a good candidate for the advanced steady-state operations in future fusion reactors. We also find that the behaviors of the sawtooth-like oscillations are almost independent of Tokamak geometry, which implies that the steady state with saturated m/n=2/1 islands might exist in different Tokamaks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 899
Zaida Troya ◽  
Rafael Esteban ◽  
Enrique Herrera-Viedma ◽  
Antonio Peña-García

Nuclear facilities are a main milestone in the long way to sustainable energy. Beyond the well-known fission centrals, the necessity of cleaner, more efficient and almost unlimited energy reducing waste to almost zero is a major challenge in the next decades. This is the case with nuclear fusion. Different experimental installations to definitively control this nuclear power are proliferating in different countries. However, citizens in the surroundings of cities and villages where these installations are going to be settled are frequently reluctant because of doubts about the expected benefits and the potential hazards. In this framework, knowing the opinion of people and their perception of experimental fusion facilities is essential for researchers, administrations and rulemaking bodies planning future fusion plants. This is the case for IFMIF-DONES, a neutron irradiation facility to determine the most suitable materials for the future fusion reactors. The construction of this installation is starting in Escúzar (Granada, Spain), and this work presents a large survey among 311 people living or working in the village. Their perception, fears, hopes and other variables are analyzed, and the conclusions for future installations and their impact on the energy policy are presented.

2021 ◽  
SangKyeun Kim ◽  
Ricardo Shousha ◽  
Sang-Hee Hahn ◽  
Andrew Oakleigh Nelson ◽  
Josiah Wai ◽  

Abstract Mitigation of deleterious heat flux from edge-localized modes (ELMs) on fusion reactors is often attempted with 3D perturbations of the confining magnetic fields. However, the established technique of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) also degrades plasma performance, complicating implementation on future fusion reactors. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive real-time control scheme on the KSTAR tokamak as a viable approach to achieve an ELM-free state and simultaneously recover high-confinement (βN~1.91, βp~1.53, and H98~0.9), demonstrating successful handling of a volatile complex system through adaptive measures. We show that, by exploiting a salient hysteresis process to adaptively minimize the RMP strength, stable ELM suppression can be achieved while actively encouraging confinement recovery. This is made possible by a self-organized transport response in the plasma edge which reinforces the confinement improvement through a widening of the ion temperature pedestal and promotes control stability, in contrast to the deteriorating effect on performance observed in standard RMP experiments. These results establish the real-time approach as an up-and-coming solution towards an optimized ELM-free state, which is an important step for the operation of ITER and reactor-grade tokamak plasmas.

2021 ◽  
Nobuyuki Asakura ◽  
Kazuo Hoshino ◽  
Satoshi Kakudate ◽  
Fabio Subba ◽  
Christian Vorpahl ◽  

2021 ◽  
Yong-Su Na ◽  
Hyunsun Han ◽  
Sangjin Park ◽  
Jisung Kang ◽  
Young-Ho Lee ◽  

Abstract We report a discovery of a fusion plasma regime suitable for commercial fusion reactor where the ion temperature was sustained above 100 million degree about 20 s for the first time. Nuclear fusion as a promising technology for replacing carbon-dependent energy sources has currently many issues to be resolved to enable its large-scale use as a sustainable energy source. State-of-the-art fusion reactors cannot yet achieve the high levels of fusion performance, high temperature, and absence of instabilities required for steady-state operation for a long period of time on the order of hundreds of seconds. This is a pressing challenge within the field, as the development of methods that would enable such capabilities is essential for the successful construction of commercial fusion reactor. Here, a new plasma confinement regime called fast ion roled enhancement (FIRE) mode is presented. This mode is realized at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) and subsequently characterized to show that it meets most of the requirements for fusion reactor commercialization. Through a comparison to other well-known plasma confinement regimes, the favourable properties of FIRE mode are further elucidated and concluded that the novelty lies in the high fraction of fast ions, which acts to stabilize turbulence and achieve steady-state operation for up to 20 s by self-organization. We propose this mode as a promising path towards commercial fusion reactors.

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