Plasma Science and Technology
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Published By Iop Publishing

2058-6272, 1009-0630

Wei Zhang ◽  
Zhiwei Ma ◽  
Haowei Zhang ◽  
Xin Wang

Abstract The sawtooth-like oscillations resulting from the m/n=2/1 double tearing mode (DTM) are numerically investigated through the three-dimensional, toroidal, nonlinear resistive-MHD code (CLT). We find that the nonlinear evolution of the m/n=2/1 DTM can lead to sawtooth-like oscillations, which are similar to those driven by the kink mode. The perpendicular thermal conductivity and the external heating rate can significantly alter the behaviors of the DTM driven sawtooth-like oscillations. With a high perpendicular thermal conductivity, the system quickly evolves into a steady state with m/n=2/1 magnetic islands and helical flow. However, with a low perpendicular thermal conductivity, the system tends to exhibit sawtooth-like oscillations. With a sufficiently high or low heating rate, the system exhibits sawtooth-like oscillations, while with an intermediate heating rate, the system quickly evolves into a steady state. At the steady state, there exist the non-axisymmetric magnetic field and strong radial flow, and both are with helicity of m/n=2/1. Like the steady state with m/n=1/1 radial flow, which is beneficial for preventing the Helium ash accumulation in the core, the steady state with m/n=2/1 radial flow might also be a good candidate for the advanced steady-state operations in future fusion reactors. We also find that the behaviors of the sawtooth-like oscillations are almost independent of Tokamak geometry, which implies that the steady state with saturated m/n=2/1 islands might exist in different Tokamaks.

Jiali CHEN ◽  
Peiyu Ji ◽  
Maoyang Li ◽  
Tianyuan Huang ◽  
Lanjian Zhuge ◽  

Abstract Herein, we report the successful preparation of Ag–decorated vertical–oriented graphene sheets (Ag/VGs) via helicon wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (HWP–CVD) and radio frequency plasma magnetron sputtering (RF–PMS). VGs were synthesized in a mixture of argon and methane (Ar/CH4) by HWP–CVD, and then the silver nanoparticles on the prepared VGs were modified using the RF-PMS system under different sputtering times and RF power levels. The morphology and structure of the Ag nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results revealed that Ag nanoparticles were evenly dispersed on the mesoporous wall of the VGs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the diameter of the Ag particles increased with the increase of silver loading, and the average size was between 10.49 nm and 25.9 nm, which were consistent with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Ag/VGs were investigated as effective electrocatalysts for use in an alkaline aqueous system. Due to the uniquely ordered and interconnected wall structure of VGs, the area of active sites increased with the Ag loading, which made the Ag/VGs have high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance. The double–layer capacitance (Cdl) of the Ag/VGs under different silver loadings were studied, and the results showed that highest silver content is the best (1.04 mF/cm2). The results showed that, Ag/VGs expected to be a credible electrocatalytic material.

Liang Liao ◽  
Yunfeng Liang ◽  
Shaocheng Liu ◽  
Huaxiang Zhang ◽  
Xiang Ji ◽  

Abstract An external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field, an effective method to mitigate or suppress the edge localized mode (ELM), has been planned to be applied on the ELM control issue in ITER. A new set of magnetic perturbation coils, named as high m coils, has been developed for the EAST tokamak. The magnetic perturbation field of the high m coils is localized in the midplane of the low field side (LFS), with a spectrum characteristic of high m and wide n, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The high m coils generates a strong localized perturbation field. Edge magnetic topology under the application of high m coils should have either a small or no stochastic region. With the combination of the high m coils and the current RMP coils, flexible working scenarios of the magnetic perturbation field are available, which is beneficial for ELM control exploration on EAST. Numerical simulations have been carried out to characterize the high m coil system, including the magnetic spectrum and magnetic topology, which shows a great flexibility of magnetic perturbation variation as a tool to investigate the interaction between ELM and external magnetic perturbation.

Fangping Wang ◽  
Heng Zhang ◽  
Sheng Zhang ◽  
Wenshan Duan

Abstract By using the Particle-In-Cell(PIC) simulation method, we study how the proton beam is confined in a bent magnetic mirror. It is found that the loss rate of the charged particles in a bent mirror is less than that in the axi-symmetric mirror. For a special bent mirror with the deflection angle of the coils $\alpha=45^{\circ}$, it is found that the loss rate reaches maximum value at certain ion number density where the ion electrostatic oscillation frequency is equal to the ion cyclotron frequency. In addition, the loss rate is irrelevant to the direction of the proton beam. Our results may be helpful to devise a mirror. In order to obtain the least loss rate, we may choose a appropriate deflection angle, and have to avoid a certain ion number density at which the ion electrostatic oscillation frequency is equal to the ion cyclotron frequency.

Wenyuan Zhang ◽  
Haojun Xu ◽  
Binbin Pei ◽  
Xiaolong Wei ◽  
Pei Feng ◽  

Abstract This work proposes a new plasma super-phase gradient metasurfaces (PS-PGMs) structure, owing to the limitations of the thin-layer plasma for electromagnetic wave attenuation. Based on the cross-shaped surface unit configuration, we have designed the X-band absorbing structure through the dispersion control method. By setting up the Drude dispersion model in the computer simulation technology, the designed phase gradient metasurfaces structure is superposed over the plasma, and the PS-PGMs structure is constructed. The electromagnetic scattering characteristics of the new structure have been simulated, and the reflectance measurement has been carried out to verify the absorbing effect. The results demonstrate that the attenuation effect of the new structure is superior to that of the pure plasma structure, which invokes an improved attenuation effect from the thin layer plasma, thus enhancing the feasibility of applying the plasma stealth technology to the local stealth of the strong scattering part of a combat aircraft.

Chuanqi Wang ◽  
Junjie Qiao ◽  
Yijia Song ◽  
Qi Yang ◽  
Dazhi Wang ◽  

Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most crucial products in the plasma-based nitrogen fixation process. In this work, in-situ measurements were performed for quantifying the NO synthesis spatially in a warm air glow discharge, through the method of Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCL-AS). Two ro-vibrational transitions at 1900.076 cm-1 and 1900.517 cm-1 of the ground-state NO(X) were probed sensitively by the help of the wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) approach to increase the signal/noise (S/N) level. The results show a decline trend of NO synthesis rate along the discharge channel from the cathode to the anode. However, from the point of energy efficiency, the cathode region is of significantly low energy efficiency of NO production. Severe disproportionality was found for the high energy consumption but low NO production in the region of cathode area, compared to that in the positive column zone. Further analysis demonstrates the high energy cost of NO production in the cathode region, is ascribed to the extremely high reduced electric field E/N therein not selectively preferable for the processes of vibrational excitation or dissociation of N2 and O2 molecules. This drags down the overall energy efficiency of NO synthesis by this typical warm air glow discharge, particularly for the ones with short electrode gaps. Limitations of further improving the energy cost of NO synthesis by variations of the discharge operation conditions, such as discharge current or airflow rate, imply other effective manners able to tune the energy delivery selectively to the NO formation process, are sorely needed.

Hailong Zhu ◽  
Yifan Wu ◽  
Qixiang Huang ◽  
Kechang Ren ◽  
Yurui Li

Abstract The striation plasmas are usually generated in positive column of glow discharge, in which abundant and complex physics are involved, especially, in medium or high pressures. This paper was aimed at investigating the formation and deformation of helium striation plasmas at kPa level pressures. The characteristics of helium striation plasmas, especially, the optical emission characteristics were investigated. The emission lines of 706.52 nm and 391.44 nm related to energetic electrons and high energy metastable helium atoms were focused on during the discharge process. Formation of striation plasmas in helium glow discharge, is mainly associated with the instability resulting from stepwise ionization vis high energy metastable state atoms, Maxwellization of electron distribution functions and gas heating. The deformation effect of helium striation plasmas is very significant when a small amount of nitrogen or oxygen is mixed into the discharge plasmas. The reduction of mean electron energy and the consumption of high energy metastable helium atoms are the potential reasons for deformation of striation plasmas.

Zhihui Huang ◽  
Jun Cheng ◽  
Na Wu ◽  
Longwen Yan ◽  
Hongbing Xu ◽  

Abstract A newly designed divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system has been installed in a rare closed divertor of the HL-2A tokamak and steadily operated for the study of divertor physics involved edge-localized mode (ELM) mitigation, detachment and redistribution of heat flux, etc. Two sets of probe arrays including 274 probe tips were placed at two ports (approximately 180° separated toroidally), and the spatial and temporal resolutions of this measurement system could reach 6 mm and 1 s, respectively. A novel design of the ceramic isolation ring can ensure reliable electrical insulation property between the graphite tip and the copper substrate plate where plasma impurities and the dust are deposited into the gaps for a long experimental time. Meanwhile, the condition monitoring and mode conversion between single and triple probe of the probe system could be conveniently implemented via a remote control station. The preliminary experimental result shows that the divertor Langmuir probe system is capable of measuring the high spatiotemporal parameters involved the plasma density, electron temperature, particle flux as well as heat flux during the ELMy H-mode discharges.

Peng Zhang ◽  
Ruvarashe Dambire

Abstract In plasma etching process, the edge roughness and mask pattern usually play a significant role in the deformation of holes under the influence of charging effect. The competitive effect between these two factors has been investigated, focusing on the surface charging in a hexagonal array, with various values of roughness parameters (amplitude (A) and wavelength (W)) and distances between holes (L). A series of classical particle dynamic simulations of surface charging, surface etching and profile evolution were used to investigate the effect of roughness and pattern on charging. This study showed that various roughness and patterns (represented by different values of L) can significantly influence surface distributions of the electric-field (E-field) and the etching rates on the mask surface. The simulations also showed that (1) the shape of the pattern array influences the mask hole profile during etching process, i.e. a hexagonal array pattern tends to deform the profile of a circular mask hole into a hexagonal hole; (2) pattern roughness is aggravated during etching process. These factors were found to be significant only at a small feature pitch and may be ignored at a large feature pitch. Possible mechanisms of these results during etching process are discussed. This work sheds light on the ways to maintain pattern integrity and further improve the quality of the pattern transfer onto the substrate.

Yufa Zhou ◽  
Jingsen Zhang ◽  
Guangqing Xia ◽  
Yue Hua ◽  
Yanqin Li ◽  

Abstract In this work, N-doped graphite oxide (GO-P) was prepared by cold plasma treatment of GO using a mixture of NH3 and Ar as the working gas. When the ratios of NH3:Ar were 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, the specific capacitances of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:2), GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3), and GO-P(NH3:Ar1:4) were 124.5, 187.7, and 134.6 Fg−1, respectively, which were 4.7, 7.1, and 5.1 times that of GO at the current density of 1 Ag−1. The capacitance retention of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3) was 80% when it was cycled 1000 times. The characterization results showed that the NH3 cold plasma could effectively produce N-doped GO and generate more active defects. The N/C ratio and the contents of pyridinic nitrogen and graphitic nitrogen of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3) were the highest. These were conducive to providing pseudocapacitance and reducing the internal resistance of the electrode. In addition, the ID/IG of the GO-P(NH3:Ar=1:3) (1.088) was also the highest, indicating the highest number of defects. The results of discharge parameters measurement and in situ optical emission spectroscopy diagnosis of NH3 plasma showed that the discharge is the strongest when the ratio of NH3:Ar was 1:3, thereby the generated nitrogen active species can effectively promote N-doping. The N-doping and abundant defects were the keys to the excellent electrochemical performance of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3). NH3 cold plasma is a simple and rapid method to prepare N-doped GO and regulate the N-doping to prepare high-performance supercapacitors.

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