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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 899
Zaida Troya ◽  
Rafael Esteban ◽  
Enrique Herrera-Viedma ◽  
Antonio Peña-García

Nuclear facilities are a main milestone in the long way to sustainable energy. Beyond the well-known fission centrals, the necessity of cleaner, more efficient and almost unlimited energy reducing waste to almost zero is a major challenge in the next decades. This is the case with nuclear fusion. Different experimental installations to definitively control this nuclear power are proliferating in different countries. However, citizens in the surroundings of cities and villages where these installations are going to be settled are frequently reluctant because of doubts about the expected benefits and the potential hazards. In this framework, knowing the opinion of people and their perception of experimental fusion facilities is essential for researchers, administrations and rulemaking bodies planning future fusion plants. This is the case for IFMIF-DONES, a neutron irradiation facility to determine the most suitable materials for the future fusion reactors. The construction of this installation is starting in Escúzar (Granada, Spain), and this work presents a large survey among 311 people living or working in the village. Their perception, fears, hopes and other variables are analyzed, and the conclusions for future installations and their impact on the energy policy are presented.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 521
Gyunyoung Heo

Since the publication of the first comprehensive Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) study—known as WASH-1400—in the US, PSA has developed into an effective and systematic method of identifying hazards, and evaluating and prioritizing the risks in nuclear facilities [...]

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 07-12
Lilik Mugiharto ◽  
Aries Sudiarso ◽  
Luhut Simbolon

Indonesia has the potential for a nuclear emergency, so it is necessary to prepare resources to deal with nuclear emergencies to minimize losses. A nuclear emergency caused by a nuclear reactor accident is a non-military defense sector as the main component supported by other elements of the nation's power. Nuclear Biology and Chemical Company of the Indonesian Armed Forces Army (Kizinubika) is another element of the nation's power that provides reinforcement in non-military defense in the face of nuclear emergencies. The purpose of this study is to strengthen the Kizinubika resources for the Nuclear Energy Supervisory Agency (Bapeten) and the Directorate for the Management of Nuclear Facilities at the National Research and Innovation Agency (DPFKN-BRIN) in dealing with nuclear emergencies in order to support national defense. This type of research is qualitative by using literature study, observation, and interview methods. Internal resource criteria are determined based on the Resources Based View (RBV) theory. The results of the study in the form of recommended resources in strengthening the Kizinubika against Bapeten and DPFKN-BRIN in the form of; (1) The use of the Kizinubika facility as a joint training facility and infrastructure; (2) The use of special equipment Kizinubika in support of nuclear emergency response; (3) Kizinubika's strategic location close to DPFKN-BRIN supports speed in emergency response; (4) Use of Kizinubika's Human Resources through joint training in increasing the quantity and quality of training; and (5) Kizinubika's internal organizational relations support the task of dealing with nuclear emergencies.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 383
Linda Mally ◽  
Martin Werz ◽  
Stefan Weihe

Additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting are rapidly gaining a foothold in safety-relevant areas of application such as powerplants or nuclear facilities. Special requirements apply to these applications. A certain material behavior must be guaranteed and the material must be approved for these applications. One of the biggest challenges here is the transfer of these already approved materials from conventional manufacturing processes to additive manufacturing. Ferritic steels that have been processed conventionally by forging, welding, casting, and bending are widely used in safety-relevant applications such as reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, valves, and piping. However, the use of ferritic steels for AM has been relatively little explored. In search of new materials for the SLM process, it is assumed that materials with good weldability are also additively processible. Therefore, the processability with SLM, the process behavior, and the achievable material properties of the weldable ferritic material 22NiMoCr3-7, which is currently used in nuclear facilities, are investigated. The material properties achieved in the SLM are compared with the conventionally forged material as it is used in state-of-the-art pressure water reactors. This study shows that the ferritic-bainitic steel 22NiMoCr3-7 is suitable for processing with SLM. Suitable process parameters were found with which density values > 99% were achieved. For the comparison of the two materials in this study, the microstructure, hardness values, and tensile strength were compared. By means of a specially adapted heat treatment method, the material properties of the printed material could be approximated to those of the original block material. In particular, the cooling medium/cooling method was adapted and the cooling rate reduced. The targeted ferritic-bainitic microstructure was achieved by this heat treatment. The main difference found between the two materials relates to the grain sizes present. For the forged material, the grain size distribution varies between very fine and slightly coarse grains. The grain size distribution in the printed material is more uniform and the grains are smaller overall. In general, it was difficult and only minimal possible to induce grain growth. As a result, the hardness values of the printed material are also slightly higher. The tensile strength could be approximated to that of the reference material up to 60 MPa. The approximation of the mechanical-technological properties is therefore deemed to be adequate.

2022 ◽  
Alexey A. Ekidin ◽  
Aleksey V. Vasilyev ◽  
Maxim E. Vasyanovich ◽  
Evgeniy I. Nazarov ◽  
Maria D. Pyshkina

Abstract Independent public control of nuclear facilities is aimed at raising awareness of the general public about the effectiveness of measures to protect the environment from the radiation effects. The experience and the result of interaction between specialists of the Academy of Sciences and a higher school in organizing and conducting public control by instrumental methods of the territories for the location of radiation-hazardous facilities: uranium mining sites by underground leaching, the area of the Belarusian nuclear power plant in the pre-operational period, the area of the floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov" and the publicly accessible territory of control area of the Mayak Production Association. Such a pooling of efforts allows for the formation of new ways of obtaining reliable information for any interested public. The results of special studies characterizing the radioecological situation in the surveyed territories are presented.

Nuclear Law ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 161-171
Bonnie Denise Jenkins

AbstractThe forthcoming arrival of small modular reactors and other advanced nuclear reactor technologies can be an immensely beneficial development in the world’s collective pursuit of energy security and meeting climate change objectives. The key question is whether or not these new reactor technologies significantly alter the fundamental premises underlying the existing nuclear security legal regime. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its Amendment (A/CPPNM) are the only legally binding international instruments governing the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. Together the A/CPPNM and the international guidance on nuclear security comprise the current legal framework for nuclear security. This chapter examines whether the A/CPPNM adequately covers advanced reactor technologies; and whether the States that are interested in acquiring these new reactor technologies have the capacity to effectively implement the associated legal requirements, regulatory standards, and international guidance that comes along with such technologies. The analysis touches upon the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IAEA Nuclear Security Guidance, and issues of cybersecurity.

Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake ◽  
Rainer Frentzel-Beyme ◽  
Roland Wolff

AbstractNon-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increased continuously since the last century in developed countries. While they are considered as disease in elder ages, a remarkable increasing incidence is also observed in German children and juveniles. The higher rates are interpreted by the changes in classification because diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were also identified as NHL. Considerable rates of NHL were found in nuclear workers and liquidators of Chernobyl, i.e. in cases of low-dose chronical exposures. In Germany, we noticed three workers who developed NHL after decontamination of nuclear facilities. The bone marrow is generally considered as target organ for ionizing radiation, but NHL is obviously induced in the whole pool of lymphocytes. Therefore, the dosimetry in cases of typical occupational external and internal exposure must be revised. A high radiation sensitivity for NHL is a possible suspect and likely reason which may partly explain the continuous rise of the diseases in populations underlying the current increases of medical diagnostic exposure. NHL is also induced in children and juveniles with a history of diagnostic X-rays.

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