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2023 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
pp. 115539
Giorgio Fedele ◽  
Gianluca Russo ◽  
Ilaria Schiavoni ◽  
Pasqualina Leone ◽  
Eleonora Olivetta ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-50
Shiv Vansh Bharti ◽  
Anup Sharma

Introduction: Acute Pancreatitis is a common disease in our region. It can range from mild to severe disease with high mortality rate. It is critical to identify patients who are at high risk for a severe disease course, since they require close monitoring and immediate aggressive treatment. Aims: To compare the effectiveness of Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score with Ranson’s scoring system in predicting the severity of Acute Pancreatitis. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was done among 45 patients who were admitted in surgery department over a period of one year with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. If haematocrit was less than39% in female and less than43% in male, serum creatinine less than two miligram /deciliter and no sign of peritonitis, it was assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score Zero. If at least one parameter was abnormal it was assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score +. Severe pancreatitis (poor prognosis) was considered in those who required Intensive Care Unit care, who had in hospital mortality and who had hospitalization of more than five days. Patients with on admission Ranson’s score of more than three were suspected to have severe Pancreatitis. Results: There were total 45 patients, 18 females and 27 males. Twenty four patients were assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score zero and 21 patients were assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score +. Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score was able to predict correctly in 18 out of 26 patients who fulfilled the criteria of poor prognosis (p<0.001). Conclusion: Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score proved to be a better screening tool compared to on admission Ranson’s scoring system to predict the severity of Acute Pancreatitis, which may help predict the prognosis of the patient.

2022 ◽  
Dallas L Mould ◽  
Mirjana Stevanovic ◽  
Alix Ashare ◽  
Daniel Schultz ◽  
Deborah Hogan

Microbes frequently evolve in reproducible ways. Here, we show that differences in specific metabolic regulation explain the frequent presence of lasR loss-of-function mutations in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While LasR contributes to virulence, lasR mutants have been associated with more severe disease. A model based on the intrinsic growth kinetics for a wild type strain and its LasR– derivative, in combination with an experimental evolution based genetic screen and further genetics analyses, indicated that differences in metabolism were sufficient to explain the rise of these common mutant types. The evolution of LasR– lineages in laboratory and clinical isolates depended on activity of the two-component system CbrAB, which modulates substrate prioritization through the catabolite repression control pathway. LasR– lineages frequently arise in cystic fibrosis lung infections and their detection correlates with disease severity. Our analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid metabolomes identified compounds that negatively correlate with lung function, and we show that these compounds support enhanced growth of LasR– cells in a CbrB-controlled manner. We propose that in vivo metabolomes are a major driver of pathogen evolution, which may influence the progression of disease and its treatment.

2022 ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Shuo-Qi Zhang ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Yue Tang ◽  
Man Chen ◽  

Abstract Objective: Several autoimmune CNS inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytopathy (A-GFAP-A), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) and aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin-G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD) often presented initially with similar infectious meningitis-like symptoms. However, it was not easy to differentiate them at disease onset without antibody detection. The present study aimed to compare the clinical, immunological and radiological features among the three diseases. Methods: In our single-center cohorts, 9 A-GFAP-A, 17 MOGAD and 11 AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD patients mimicking infectious meningitis as initial symptoms were retrospectively included. The autoantibodies were detected with cell-based assays. The clinical, immunological and radiological characteristics of the three groups were summarized. Results: AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD patients were statistically more often in men (10, 90.9%, P=0.003). Tremor was predominated in A-GFAP-A (4, 44.4%) over MOGAD (1, 5.9%, P= 0.034) and never found in AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (0, P=0.026). The Modified Rankin Score (mRS) at the clinical nadir of diseases was lower in AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (2.2 [IQR, 1-3]) compared to A-GFAP-A (3.7 [IQR, 3-5], P=0.04). On CSF examination, white blood cell count (WBC) was higher in A-GFAP-A (median, 272×106/L [range, 0-1600]) compared to AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (median, 12×106/L [range, 0-48], P=0.049). Significant increase in CSF protein (1490.7±871.2 mg/L), lactic acid (3.43±0.81 mmol/L), IgG (130.9±60.4 mg/L), IgM (8.6±6.1mg/L) and IgA (23.0±11.4mg/L) levels in A-GFAP-A was found compared to MOGAD (CSF protein: 606.7±379.4 mg/L, P<0.001; lactic acid: 2.15 ± 0.62mmol/L, P<0.001; IgG: 77.9±71.3 mg/L, P=0.043; IgM, 2.7±2.9mg/L, P=0.002; IgA, 11.3±12.1mg/L, P=0.012) and AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (CSF protein: 441.8±178.0 mg/L, P<0.001; lactic acid: 2.40 ± 0.66 mmol/L, P=0.003; IgG, 53.2±30.3 mg/L, P=0.01; IgM, 2.1±3.9mg/L, P=0.003; IgA, 5.2±5.0mg/L, P=0.001). Over half of the A-GFAP-A patients (5/8, 62.5%) showed small (<2 cm), symmetrical lesions in ganglia and thalamus (5/8, 62.5%), but never in MOGAD (0%, P=0.001) and AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (0%, P=0.026). Diffuse meningeal enhancement was common in A-GFAP-A (8, 88.9%) compared to MOGAD (5, 29.4%, P=0.011) and AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (1/6, 16.7%, P=0.011). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) -like lesions occurred frequently in MOGAD (6/16, 37.5%) but never in A-GFAP-A and AQP4-IgG+NMOSD (P=0.02). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that several signs including the symptom of tremor, a more severe disease course, higher CSF immunological profiles and ganglia bilateral symmetrical lesions, diffuse meningeal enhancement were distinct features in A-GFAP-A, and ADEM-like lesions occurred only in MOGAD mimicking infectious meningitis as initial symptoms, providing possible clinical implications for patient differential diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Hannah Hussey ◽  
Mary-Ann Davies ◽  
Alexa Heekes ◽  
Carolyn Williamson ◽  
Ziyaad Valley-Omar ◽  

Background Emerging data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern (VOC)is associated with reduced risk of severe disease. The extent to which this reflects a difference in the inherent virulence of Omicron, or just higher levels of population immunity, is currently not clear. Methods RdRp target delay (RTD: a difference in cycle threshold value of RdRp - E > 3.5) in the Seegene AllplexTM 2019-nCoV PCR assay is a proxy marker for the Delta VOC. The absence of this proxy marker in the transition period was used to identify suspected Omicron VOC infections. Cox regression was performed for the outcome of hospital admission in those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on the Seegene AllplexTM assay from 1 November to 14 December 2021 in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, public sector. Vaccination status at time of diagnosis, as well as prior diagnosed infection and comorbidities, were adjusted for. Results 150 cases with RTD (proxy for Delta) and 1486 cases without RTD (proxy for Omicron) were included. Cases without RTD had a lower hazard of admission (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] of 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.91). Complete vaccination was protective of admission with an aHR of 0.45 (95%CI 0.26-0.77). Conclusion Omicron has resulted in a lower risk of hospital admission, compared to contemporaneous Delta infection in the Western Cape Province, when using the proxy marker of RTD. Under-ascertainment of reinfections with an immune escape variant like Omicron remains a challenge to accurately assessing variant virulence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 405
Charline Herrscher ◽  
Sébastien Eymieux ◽  
Christophe Gaborit ◽  
Hélène Blasco ◽  
Julien Marlet ◽  

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, many studies have investigated the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 during infection. Studies with native viral proteins constitute a first-line approach to assessing the overall immune response, but small peptides are an accurate and valuable tool for the fine characterization of B-cell epitopes, despite the restriction of this approach to the determination of linear epitopes. In this study, we used ELISA and peptides covering a selection of structural and non-structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify key epitopes eliciting a strong immune response that could serve as a biological signature of disease characteristics, such as severity, in particular. We used 213 plasma samples from a cohort of patients well-characterized clinically and biologically and followed for COVID-19 infection. We found that patients developing severe disease had higher titers of antibodies mapping to multiple specific epitopes than patients with mild to moderate disease. These data are potentially important as they could be used for immunological profiling to improve our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the humoral response in relation to patient outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gang Xu ◽  
Furong Qi ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  

COVID-19 patients show heterogeneous and dynamic immune features which determine the clinical outcome. Here, we built a single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset for dissecting these complicated immune responses through a longitudinal survey of COVID-19 patients with various categories of outcomes. The data reveals a highly fluctuating peripheral immune landscape in severe COVID-19, whereas the one in asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 is relatively steady. Then, the perturbed immune landscape in peripheral blood returned to normal state in those recovered from severe COVID-19. Importantly, the imbalance of the excessively strong innate immune response and delayed adaptive immunity in the early stage of viral infection accelerates the progression of the disease, indicated by a transient strong IFN response and weak T/B-cell specific response. The proportion of abnormal monocytes appeared early and rose further throughout the severe disease. Our data indicate that a dynamic immune landscape is associated with the progression and recovery of severe COVID-19, and have provided multiple immune biomarkers for early warning of severe COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Cristoforo Guccione ◽  
Raffaella Rubino ◽  
Claudia Colomba ◽  
Antonio Anastasia ◽  
Valentina Caputo ◽  

Background: Motivated by a case finding of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) associated with atypical pneumonia and pleural effusion in which Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis was identified by molecular methods in the pleural fluid, we wanted to summarize the clinical presentations of rickettsiosis in Italy by systematic research and to make a systematic review of all the global cases of rickettsiosis associated with pleural effusion. Methods: For the literature search, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was followed. We chose to select only the studies published in last 25 years and confirmed both with serological and molecular assays. Results: Human cases of rickettsiosis in Italy were reported in 48 papers describing 2831 patients with very different clinical presentations; the majority was MSF accounted to R. conorii and was reported in Sicily. Pleural effusion associated with infection with microorganisms belonging to Rickettsiales was described in 487 patients. It was rarely associated with microorganisms different from O. tsutsugamushi; also rarely, cases of scrub typhus were reported outside Southeast Asia and in the largest majority, the diagnosis was achieved with serology. Conclusions: MSF, especially when caused by R. conorii subsp. israelensis, may be a severe disease. A high index of suspicion is required to promptly start life-saving therapy. Pleural effusion and interstitial pneumonia may be part of the clinical picture of severe rickettsial disease and should not lead the physician away from this diagnosis

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Georgios Mavraganis ◽  
Sofia Ioannou ◽  
Anastasios Kallianos ◽  
Gianna Rentziou ◽  
Georgia Trakada

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with a high incidence of arterial and venous thrombotic complications. However, thromboembolic events in unusual sites such as limb and visceral arterial ischemia are reported rarely in the literature. Herein, we describe a rare case of a patient with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who experienced severe abdominal pain during the hospitalization and presented simultaneously renal artery, splenic artery and vein as well as aortic thrombi despite prophylactic antithrombotic treatment. Information about his follow-up post discharge is also provided. This case report raises significant clinical implications regarding the correct dose of antithrombotic treatment during the acute phase of the severe COVID-19 infection and highlights the need for incessant vigilance in order to detect thrombosis at unusual sites as a possible diagnosis when severe abdominal pain is present in severe COVID-19 patients.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Hong Guo-Parke ◽  
Dermot Linden ◽  
Sinéad Weldon ◽  
Joseph C. Kidney ◽  
Clifford C. Taggart

COPD is a chronic lung disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible airflow obstruction, and persistent pulmonary inflammation. It has become a global epidemic affecting 10% of the population, and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Respiratory viruses are a primary cause of COPD exacerbations, often leading to secondary bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. COPD patients are more susceptible to viral infections and associated severe disease, leading to accelerated lung function deterioration, hospitalization, and an increased risk of mortality. The airway epithelium plays an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, and orchestrates the innate and adaptive responses of the lung against inhaled and pathogen insults. A healthy airway epithelium acts as the first line of host defense by maintaining barrier integrity and the mucociliary escalator, secreting an array of inflammatory mediators, and initiating an antiviral state through the interferon (IFN) response. The airway epithelium is a major site of viral infection, and the interaction between respiratory viruses and airway epithelial cells activates host defense mechanisms, resulting in rapid virus clearance. As such, the production of IFNs and the activation of IFN signaling cascades directly contributes to host defense against viral infections and subsequent innate and adaptive immunity. However, the COPD airway epithelium exhibits an altered antiviral response, leading to enhanced susceptibility to severe disease and impaired IFN signaling. Despite decades of research, there is no effective antiviral therapy for COPD patients. Herein, we review current insights into understanding the mechanisms of viral evasion and host IFN antiviral defense signaling impairment in COPD airway epithelium. Understanding how antiviral mechanisms operate in COPD exacerbations will facilitate the discovery of potential therapeutic interventions to reduce COPD hospitalization and disease severity.

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